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< Page ,Total 11 >
Challenges and perspectives in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells EI Scopus
图书章节 | 2018 | Springer Verlag
SCOPUS Cited Count: 1
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Abstract :

Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) that have the quicker electro-kinetics of both the ethanol oxidation reaction and oxygen reduction reaction can yield much better performance than acid direct ethanol fuel cells, even with low-cost non-Pt metals as the electro-catalysts. The liquid-feed alkaline DEFC also possesses the advantages that a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has, including simpler system structures, and fast refueling. Although appealing, many challenges in both material synthesis and system design have to be overcome before extensively commercializing the alkaline DEFCs. In view of these facts, there exists the need to improve the materials and design the novel systems, achieving the high cell performance and durability. This chapter emphasizes on challenges and perspectives in the ethanol electro-oxidation, anion-exchange membrane and the system designs. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.

Keyword :

Anion exchange membrane Electro-kinetics Ethanol electro-oxidation Ethanol oxidation reaction High cell performance Material synthesis Oxygen reduction reaction System structures

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GB/T 7714 Li, Yinshi . Challenges and perspectives in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells [M] //[Li, Yinshi] 编 Springer Verlag , . 2018 .
MLA Li, Yinshi . "Challenges and perspectives in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells" [Li, Yinshi] 编 Springer Verlag , . 2018 .
APA Li, Yinshi . Challenges and perspectives in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells [Li, Yinshi] 编 Springer Verlag , . 2018 .
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System design and performance in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells EI Scopus
图书章节 | 2018 | Springer Verlag
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Fuel cells that convert the chemical energy stored in a fuel into an electrical energy by electrochemical reactions have been recognized as one of the most promising technologies for the clean energy industry of the future, especially for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs), because ethanol is less toxic than methanol and can be massively produced from agricultural products or biomass, in addition to the advantage of high specific energy and quicker electro-kinetics of both the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. A considerable amount of effort has been devoted to the development of alkaline membranes and electro-catalystsin alkaline DEFCs, including synthesis of anion-exchange membrane and electro-catalysts, and the mechanism study of both the anodic EOR and cathodic ORR. For given materials, the improvement of the cell performance, however, depends mainly on the system design. This chapter provides a brief review of the development of alkaline DEFCs from the point of view of the system. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.

Keyword :

Alkaline membranes Anion exchange membrane Electrical energy Electrochemical reactions Ethanol oxidation reaction Mechanism studies Oxygen reduction reaction System design and performance

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GB/T 7714 Li, Yinshi . System design and performance in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells [M] //[Li, Yinshi] 编 Springer Verlag , . 2018 .
MLA Li, Yinshi . "System design and performance in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells" [Li, Yinshi] 编 Springer Verlag , . 2018 .
APA Li, Yinshi . System design and performance in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells [Li, Yinshi] 编 Springer Verlag , . 2018 .
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Findings of acupuncture mechanisms using EEG and MEG EI Scopus
图书章节 | August 29, 2017 | Springer Singapore
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GB/T 7714 Qin, Wei , Bai, Lijun , Jin, Lingmin et al. Findings of acupuncture mechanisms using EEG and MEG [M] //[Qin, Wei, Bai, Lijun, Jin, Lingmin, Tian, Jie] 编 Springer Singapore , . August 29, 2017 .
MLA Qin, Wei et al. "Findings of acupuncture mechanisms using EEG and MEG" [Qin, Wei, Bai, Lijun, Jin, Lingmin, Tian, Jie] 编 Springer Singapore , . August 29, 2017 .
APA Qin, Wei , Bai, Lijun , Jin, Lingmin , Tian, Jie . Findings of acupuncture mechanisms using EEG and MEG [Qin, Wei, Bai, Lijun, Jin, Lingmin, Tian, Jie] 编 Springer Singapore , . August 29, 2017 .
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Temporospatial encoding of acupuncture effects in the brain EI Scopus
图书章节 | August 29, 2017 | Springer Singapore
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GB/T 7714 Bai, Lijun , Tian, Jie . Temporospatial encoding of acupuncture effects in the brain [M] //[Bai, Lijun, Tian, Jie] 编 Springer Singapore , . August 29, 2017 .
MLA Bai, Lijun et al. "Temporospatial encoding of acupuncture effects in the brain" [Bai, Lijun, Tian, Jie] 编 Springer Singapore , . August 29, 2017 .
APA Bai, Lijun , Tian, Jie . Temporospatial encoding of acupuncture effects in the brain [Bai, Lijun, Tian, Jie] 编 Springer Singapore , . August 29, 2017 .
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Intracellular Microfluid Transportation in Fast Growing Pollen Tubes EI Scopus
图书章节 | January 25, 2017 | Elsevier Inc.
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Abstract :

Fast tip growth of pollen tubes is a process of fundamental importance in sexual plant reproduction. In this chapter, physical models were developed to analyze the hydrodynamics and the advection-diffusion dynamics of fountain streaming in pollen tubes. It is demonstrated that the unique properties of fountain streaming contribute to the fast tip growth of pollen tubes by regulating the gradients of turgor pressure and cell wall materials. Simple experiments confirm that the tip shape and growth rate of pollen tubes are influenced by the changes in turgor pressure gradients as induced by drought stress. Both the analytical and the numerical methods presented in this chapter provide mechanistic insights for the understanding of the sexual reproduction and infertility of flowering plants under normal conditions and drought stress. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

Advection - Diffusion Cyclosis Driving forces Gradients Tip growth

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GB/T 7714 Liu, S. , Liu, H. , Lin, M. et al. Intracellular Microfluid Transportation in Fast Growing Pollen Tubes [M] //[Liu, S., Liu, H., Lin, M., Xu, F., Lu, T.J.] 编 Elsevier Inc. , . January 25, 2017 .
MLA Liu, S. et al. "Intracellular Microfluid Transportation in Fast Growing Pollen Tubes" [Liu, S., Liu, H., Lin, M., Xu, F., Lu, T.J.] 编 Elsevier Inc. , . January 25, 2017 .
APA Liu, S. , Liu, H. , Lin, M. , Xu, F. , Lu, T.J. . Intracellular Microfluid Transportation in Fast Growing Pollen Tubes [Liu, S., Liu, H., Lin, M., Xu, F., Lu, T.J.] 编 Elsevier Inc. , . January 25, 2017 .
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Big Data: A Classification of Acquisition and Generation Methods EI
图书章节 | February 8, 2017 | Elsevier Inc.
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Traditionally, data have been stored in securely protected databases for special purposes, such as satellite imagery data for earth science research or customer transaction data for business analytics. The usefulness of data lies in the fact that they can be examined and analyzed to unearth correlations among data items and to discover knowledge to gain deeper insightful trends. Data analytics has been the key research topic in data mining, knowledge discovery and machine learning for decades. In recent years, the term "data" has experienced a major rejuvenation in many aspects of our lives. The rapid development of the Internet and web technologies allows ordinary users to generate vast amounts of data about their daily lives. On the Internet of Things, the number of connected devices has grown exponentially; each of these produces real-time or near real-time streaming data about our physical world. The resulting data, which is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to be stored, processed, and analyzed with conventional computing methodologies and resources, is referred to as the "Big Data." In this chapter, we focus on a subset of big data: digital data and analog data. These two major subsets are further divided as the environmental and personal source of data. We have also highlighted the data types and formats as well as different input mechanisms. These classifications are helpful to understand the active and passive way of data collection and production with explicit and without (i.e., implicit) human involvement. This chapter intends to provide enough information to support the reader to understand the role of digital and analog sources, and how data is acquired, transmitted, and preprocessed using today's growing variety of computing devices and sensors. © 2017 All rights reserved.

Keyword :

Business analytics Computing devices Computing methodologies Connected Devices Data generation Data storage Satellite imagery data Sensing devices

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GB/T 7714 Nanjappan, Vijayakumar , Liang, Hai-Ning , Wang, Wei et al. Big Data: A Classification of Acquisition and Generation Methods [M] //[Nanjappan, Vijayakumar, Liang, Hai-Ning, Wang, Wei, Man, Ka L.] 编 Elsevier Inc. , . February 8, 2017 .
MLA Nanjappan, Vijayakumar et al. "Big Data: A Classification of Acquisition and Generation Methods" [Nanjappan, Vijayakumar, Liang, Hai-Ning, Wang, Wei, Man, Ka L.] 编 Elsevier Inc. , . February 8, 2017 .
APA Nanjappan, Vijayakumar , Liang, Hai-Ning , Wang, Wei , Man, Ka L. . Big Data: A Classification of Acquisition and Generation Methods [Nanjappan, Vijayakumar, Liang, Hai-Ning, Wang, Wei, Man, Ka L.] 编 Elsevier Inc. , . February 8, 2017 .
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Ab Initio-based stochastic simulations of kinetic processes on surfaces EI Scopus
图书章节 | June 16, 2016 | IGI Global
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Abstract :

We briefly present the theoretical framework of a hierarchical multi-scale approach, which is an ab initiobased stochastic method, and its applications to several chemical/physical kinetic processes on metallic surfaces. We first introduce necessary theoretical basis of ab initio and Monte Carlo (MC) methods, and then illustrate different Monte Carlo algorithms for important ensembles, including canonical and grand canonical ensembles. In the following section, we describe two important protocols which are essential to integrate ab initio data and MC models. Two examples are presented in order to elucidate the power of this multi-scale approach. The first example focuses on the combination of kinetic Monte Carlo and transition state theory. We discuss the detailed processes of performing kinetic Monte Carlo simulation on atomic diffusion on alloyed surface, including some technical aspects. In the second example, we presents a different way to account for the local environment-sensitive metal-catalyzed O2 dissociation reactions using combinatory techniques including cluster expansion and grand canonical Monte Carlo methods. This approach provides steady-state rates and rate derivatives that are comparable with experiments. Moreover, the connection between the feasible mechanisms and the observed kinetic behaviors can now be built. © 2016 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

Dissociation reactions Grand canonical ensemble Grand canonical monte carlo methods Kinetic monte carlo simulation Monte carlo algorithms Multi-scale approaches Stochastic simulations Transition state theories

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GB/T 7714 Chen, Zhengzheng , Wu, Chao . Ab Initio-based stochastic simulations of kinetic processes on surfaces [M] //[Chen, Zhengzheng, Wu, Chao] 编 IGI Global , . June 16, 2016 .
MLA Chen, Zhengzheng et al. "Ab Initio-based stochastic simulations of kinetic processes on surfaces" [Chen, Zhengzheng, Wu, Chao] 编 IGI Global , . June 16, 2016 .
APA Chen, Zhengzheng , Wu, Chao . Ab Initio-based stochastic simulations of kinetic processes on surfaces [Chen, Zhengzheng, Wu, Chao] 编 IGI Global , . June 16, 2016 .
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Thermal Mapping Using Infrared Thermography EI Scopus
图书章节 | July 15, 2016 | Elsevier
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Infrared (IR) thermometry is one of the noninvasive temperature measurement techniques allowing surface temperatures both at a point and over an area to be obtained. Such IR thermometry systems (eg, IR camera) are commercially available and integrated with built-in software and a real-time display unit. The following questions arise: (1) Why do readers need to know the basic principles of the IR system? (2) Why is there a need for calibration for a presumably ready-to-go system? The former is to acquaint the readers with how the IR camera works. The latter is dependent upon how close your experimental setup is to the manufacturer's calibration conditions. This procedure is essential to improve the data accuracy of an IR system in a specific experimental setup whose conditions typically differ from the manufacturers'. A brief introduction to the theoretical background of how the IR system (camera) works is given and some parameters to be considered during calibration are discussed. Examples that describe the necessary details of how to implement the IR thermography are presented. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

Basic principles Data accuracy IR camera Ir systems IR thermography Real time display Surface temperatures Thermal mapping

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GB/T 7714 Kim, K. , Feng, S.S. . Thermal Mapping Using Infrared Thermography [M] //[Kim, K., Feng, S.S.] 编 Elsevier , . July 15, 2016 .
MLA Kim, K. et al. "Thermal Mapping Using Infrared Thermography" [Kim, K., Feng, S.S.] 编 Elsevier , . July 15, 2016 .
APA Kim, K. , Feng, S.S. . Thermal Mapping Using Infrared Thermography [Kim, K., Feng, S.S.] 编 Elsevier , . July 15, 2016 .
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Experimentation in Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer EI Scopus
图书章节 | July 15, 2016 | Elsevier
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Abstract :

For any experimental study, a fundamental question is perhaps "what to measure." Answering this question is associated with governing equations that need to be closed. The governing equations in aerodynamics and heat transfer are the "continuity equation," "momentum equations," and "energy equation." Fundamental differences in closing these equations experimentally and analytically are discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

Continuity equations Energy equation Governing equations Instrumentation Measurement techniques Momentum equation

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GB/T 7714 Kim, T. , Lu, T.J. , Song, S.J. . Experimentation in Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer [M] //[Kim, T., Lu, T.J., Song, S.J.] 编 Elsevier , . July 15, 2016 .
MLA Kim, T. et al. "Experimentation in Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer" [Kim, T., Lu, T.J., Song, S.J.] 编 Elsevier , . July 15, 2016 .
APA Kim, T. , Lu, T.J. , Song, S.J. . Experimentation in Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer [Kim, T., Lu, T.J., Song, S.J.] 编 Elsevier , . July 15, 2016 .
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Effect of a polymeric additive on non-boiling heat transfer and pressure drop of upward gas-liquid two phase flow in a vertical smooth tube EI
图书章节 | January 1, 2016 | Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
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Experiments of non-boiling two phase flow heat transfer and pressure drop of upward air-water flow without and with a polymeric drag reduction additive in a vertical smooth tube were conducted in the present study. The smooth tube has an inside diameter of 40 mm, an outside diameter of 48 mm and a heat transfer length of 3 m. Two phase heat transfer was performed by cooling air-water two phase flow inside the test tube through its wall using cooling water and two phase pressure drops were measured at a length of 3.1 m. The liquid superficial velocity is kept at 1 m/s while the gas superficial velocity varies from 2.45 to 6.82 m/s. Polyacrylamide (PAM) is used as the drag reduction additive with a concentration of 300 ppm. The effect of the polymeric additives on the two phase heat transfer and pressure drop behaviors has been presented and analyzed. The two phase frictional pressure drops are reduced from 0.5% to 35.9% while the non-boiling two phase heat transfer coefficients are reduced from 71% to 92.7% with the PAM additive compare to those without the additive. Furthermore, both the two phase pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient decrease with increasing the gas superficial velocity in the presence of the PAM additive. This is of significance for the practical applications of oil and gas transportation where both two phase pressure drop and heat transfer reductions are desired. © 2016 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Keyword :

Air-water Effect Gas liquids Polyscrylamide (PAM) Upward flow

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GB/T 7714 Liu, Lei , Cheng, Lixin . Effect of a polymeric additive on non-boiling heat transfer and pressure drop of upward gas-liquid two phase flow in a vertical smooth tube [M] //[Liu, Lei, Cheng, Lixin] 编 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , . January 1, 2016 .
MLA Liu, Lei et al. "Effect of a polymeric additive on non-boiling heat transfer and pressure drop of upward gas-liquid two phase flow in a vertical smooth tube" [Liu, Lei, Cheng, Lixin] 编 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , . January 1, 2016 .
APA Liu, Lei , Cheng, Lixin . Effect of a polymeric additive on non-boiling heat transfer and pressure drop of upward gas-liquid two phase flow in a vertical smooth tube [Liu, Lei, Cheng, Lixin] 编 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , . January 1, 2016 .
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