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Family fortunes: The persisting grandparents' effects in contemporary British society Scopus SSCI PubMed
期刊论文 | 2019 , 77 , 179-192 | Social Science Research
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Abstract :

© 2018 Elsevier Inc. This study examines grandparents' effects on grandchildren in contemporary British society. We begin with grandchildren's occupational aspiration in their adolescent years and move on to assess their educational and class attainment in adulthood. Using the British Household Panel Survey and the UK Household Longitudinal Study, we find persisting grandparental effects in all three domains even after controlling for parents' socio-economic-cultural resources and other demographic and contextual factors. In addition, we find that self-employed grandparents have a strong impact on grandsons' (albeit not on granddaughters') likelihood of engagement in self-employment, a pattern that holds true even when parents are not self-employed. Our study shows that grandparents' class still affects grandchildren's life chances in contemporary UK society just as earlier research showed for mid-20th century Britain and that the effects are manifested at different stages of the life course, from occupational aspiration as teenagers to educational attainment as young adults to occupational destination as adults.

Keyword :

Class aspiration Educational and occupational attainment Grandparents' effects Self-employment UK

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GB/T 7714 Zhang, Min , Li, Yaojun . Family fortunes: The persisting grandparents' effects in contemporary British society [J]. | Social Science Research , 2019 , 77 : 179-192 .
MLA Zhang, Min 等. "Family fortunes: The persisting grandparents' effects in contemporary British society" . | Social Science Research 77 (2019) : 179-192 .
APA Zhang, Min , Li, Yaojun . Family fortunes: The persisting grandparents' effects in contemporary British society . | Social Science Research , 2019 , 77 , 179-192 .
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城市社区组织化治理:自上而下的科层制嵌入与横向联系的扁平化合作 CSSCI-C PKU
期刊论文 | 2018 , (5) , 120-128 | 人文杂志
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Abstract :

在城市社区治理过程中介入的各类组织相互间存在强度不同的纵向或横向合作,无论哪一类合作形式或连接状态都离不开社区内外组织实践互动的情境,而且直接会受到社区居委会等组织形态的规制与影响,同时又受到具体的社区内外组织结构特征及其连带的行动规则、运行机制、资源流动等要素影响.因此,为了有利于进行理论模式阐释和运行机制分析,本文以某回迁型社区治理实践作为制度化分析对象,研讨了城市社区科层制组织与社区内外各类社会组织的纵横合作过程及其内在的微观机制.

Keyword :

城市社区 扁平化合作 组织化治理 科层制嵌入

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GB/T 7714 . 城市社区组织化治理:自上而下的科层制嵌入与横向联系的扁平化合作 [J]. | 人文杂志 , 2018 , (5) : 120-128 .
MLA "城市社区组织化治理:自上而下的科层制嵌入与横向联系的扁平化合作" . | 人文杂志 5 (2018) : 120-128 .
APA . 城市社区组织化治理:自上而下的科层制嵌入与横向联系的扁平化合作 . | 人文杂志 , 2018 , (5) , 120-128 .
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共享单车的主导设计与标准之争 CSSCI-C PKU
期刊论文 | 2018 , (9) , 1602-1609,1667 | 科学学研究
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Abstract :

共享单车是近年来快速成长并带来巨大社会影响的创新产品.本文以摩拜和ofo两家企业的专利组合为样本,利用IPC分类信息,通过社会网络分析方法,研究了共享单车行业的主导设计和技术标准之争.研究发现,ofo的专利组合聚焦于共享单车的锁具与控制系统,而摩拜则涵盖了从车身和轮毂设计、传动、制动、发电、包含定位和网络通讯功能的智能锁、软件系统等完整技术领域.尽管ofo率先开创了互联网共享单车的商业模式,摩拜凭借专利组合优势领先形成了共享单车的主导设计,并进一步影响了行业技术标准的确立.但是,智能锁及供电系统并未形成统一标准,可能成为共享单车下一步竞争的焦点.这一研究为新兴行业的创新战略提供了一些新的洞见.

Keyword :

共享单车 主导设计 标准之争 专利组合竞争

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GB/T 7714 王钦 , 杨张博 . 共享单车的主导设计与标准之争 [J]. | 科学学研究 , 2018 , (9) : 1602-1609,1667 .
MLA 王钦 等. "共享单车的主导设计与标准之争" . | 科学学研究 9 (2018) : 1602-1609,1667 .
APA 王钦 , 杨张博 . 共享单车的主导设计与标准之争 . | 科学学研究 , 2018 , (9) , 1602-1609,1667 .
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家庭背景与大学生学校归属感:人际网络的多重中介作用 CSSCI-C PKU
期刊论文 | 2018 , (3) , 80-88 | 复旦教育论坛
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Abstract :

<em>大学</em>生对学校的归属感直接关系到他们在<em>大学</em>阶段的成长和发展.本文基于地位结构观和人际网络观的双重视角,分析了家庭背景和人际网络对<em>大学</em>生学校归属感的影响.多重中介分析的结果表明:两者对归属感都存在显著的效应,家庭背景较好的学生对学校的归属感要高于家庭背景较差的学生,人际网络越丰富的学生归属感越强.更重要的是,家庭背景对归属感的影响并不是直接的,而是通过人际网络的中介机制间接实现的.基于上述结论,本文提出了一些干预措施,以帮助提升弱势<em>大学</em>生群体对学校的归属感,进而提升高等教育过程的公平性.

Keyword :

家庭背景 归属感 中介效应 人际网络 教育过程公平性

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GB/T 7714 朱晓文 , 韩红 . 家庭背景与大学生学校归属感:人际网络的多重中介作用 [J]. | 复旦教育论坛 , 2018 , (3) : 80-88 .
MLA 朱晓文 等. "家庭背景与大学生学校归属感:人际网络的多重中介作用" . | 复旦教育论坛 3 (2018) : 80-88 .
APA 朱晓文 , 韩红 . 家庭背景与大学生学校归属感:人际网络的多重中介作用 . | 复旦教育论坛 , 2018 , (3) , 80-88 .
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基于社会网络分析的技术创新审计现状研究 CSSCI-E PKU
期刊论文 | 2018 , (9) , 170-175 | 科技管理研究
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Abstract :

回顾技术创新审计在国内外的研究现状,比较美国、欧洲和亚太地区技术创新审计研究的差异,进而通过社会网络分析对中国技术创新审计研究的现状进行全面、系统的分析,揭示国内技术创新审计的3个阶段和分类体系.借鉴以前的研究成果和财务审计的观点,将技术创新审计分为第三方独立评估的创新绩效审计、着眼于技术创新管理过程的创新管理审计和从政府角度出发的创新政策审计三类,探讨各自的理论基础和研究趋势.

Keyword :

社会网络分析 创新审计 技术创新

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GB/T 7714 王钦 , 杨张博 . 基于社会网络分析的技术创新审计现状研究 [J]. | 科技管理研究 , 2018 , (9) : 170-175 .
MLA 王钦 等. "基于社会网络分析的技术创新审计现状研究" . | 科技管理研究 9 (2018) : 170-175 .
APA 王钦 , 杨张博 . 基于社会网络分析的技术创新审计现状研究 . | 科技管理研究 , 2018 , (9) , 170-175 .
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Integration Journey: The Social Mobility Trajectory of Ethnic Minority Groups in Britain SSCI Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 6 (3) , 270-281 | SOCIAL INCLUSION
WoS CC Cited Count: 1 SCOPUS Cited Count: 2
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Abstract :

This article studies the processes of social mobility by the main ethno-generational groups in Britain. We compare the origin-education-destination (OED) links between the first- and second- generation ethnic minority groups with those of whites, with a particular focus on whether the second generation are getting closer to whites than do the first generation in the links, hence becoming increasingly integrated into the socio-economic lives of British society. Using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study and adopting structural equation modelling (SEM) methods, we find strong evidence of first-generation setback, and some signs of second-generation catch-up. Indians and Chinese are making progress, but the two black groups and Pakistanis/Bangladeshis are lagging behind. The analysis shows persisting ethnic disadvantages in the labour market in spite of their high levels of educational achievement, and it also shows an emerging order of ethnic hierarchy, running from Indian, Chinese, black Caribbean, Pakistani/Bangladeshi to black African groups.

Keyword :

generation social mobility UK ethnicity minorities

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GB/T 7714 Li, Yaojun . Integration Journey: The Social Mobility Trajectory of Ethnic Minority Groups in Britain [J]. | SOCIAL INCLUSION , 2018 , 6 (3) : 270-281 .
MLA Li, Yaojun . "Integration Journey: The Social Mobility Trajectory of Ethnic Minority Groups in Britain" . | SOCIAL INCLUSION 6 . 3 (2018) : 270-281 .
APA Li, Yaojun . Integration Journey: The Social Mobility Trajectory of Ethnic Minority Groups in Britain . | SOCIAL INCLUSION , 2018 , 6 (3) , 270-281 .
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The Structure of Labor Markets in the US and China: Social Capital and Guanxi SSCI Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 14 (1) , 5-36 | MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION REVIEW
WoS CC Cited Count: 1 SCOPUS Cited Count: 1
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Abstract :

Despite the major cultural and political differences between the United States and China, in both countries access to jobs is supposed to be guided by fair and equitable procedures. In the US, there is a presumption of an open labor market in which potential employees compete on the basis of their qualifications, where the fairness of decisions is guided by anti-discrimination laws and normative organizational policies. In China, although there is a history of close relationships that guide the exchange of favors, following the 1949 revolution, Communist Party leaders were given the authority to allocate positions in ways that were supposed to eliminate special privileges of class and background. Yet recent research has suggested that social connections are an important part of getting a job in both the US and China for two-thirds to three-quarters of job seekers. In the US context, such connections are described as social capital. In the Chinese context, connections are defined as guanxi. In this article, we review research on labor market processes in both the US and China to address three important questions: (a) How can we understand the similar functioning of labor markets in such distinct cultural and political systems as the US and China? (b) What are the mechanisms or processes by which people find jobs in the US and China, and how are people able to access these mechanisms or processes in the context of constraining social structures and legal environments? and (c) What are the theoretical implications of the generalized particularism' that seems to shape labor markets in both the US and China.

Keyword :

guanxi social capital labor markets social networks

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GB/T 7714 DiTomaso, Nancy , Bian, Yanjie . The Structure of Labor Markets in the US and China: Social Capital and Guanxi [J]. | MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION REVIEW , 2018 , 14 (1) : 5-36 .
MLA DiTomaso, Nancy 等. "The Structure of Labor Markets in the US and China: Social Capital and Guanxi" . | MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION REVIEW 14 . 1 (2018) : 5-36 .
APA DiTomaso, Nancy , Bian, Yanjie . The Structure of Labor Markets in the US and China: Social Capital and Guanxi . | MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION REVIEW , 2018 , 14 (1) , 5-36 .
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The Prevalence and the Increasing Significance of Guanxi SSCI Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 235 , 597-621 | CHINA QUARTERLY
SCOPUS Cited Count: 2
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Abstract :

This paper provides an analytical review of the social science literature on guanxi. The focus of this review is on the prevalence and the increasing significance of guanxi during China's post-1978 reforms, which were implemented to move the country towards a market economy. Since then, researchers have engaged in debates on what guanxi actually means to Chinese people in the past and today, how it has been adaptive to ongoing institutional transformations, and why its influence in economic, social, and political spheres can stabilize, increase or decrease with market reforms and economic growth. The author provides a synthesis of these debates before offering a theoretical framework which provides an understanding of the dynamics of guanxi through the changing degrees of institutional uncertainty and market competition. Survey findings on the increasing use of guanxi in labour markets from 1978 to 2009 are presented to illustrate the usefulness of this framework. In the conclusion, the author argues that guanxi is a five-level variable, and that the nature and forms of guanxi influence are contingent upon whether guanxi is a tie of connectivity, a sentimental tie, a sentiment-derived instrumental tie, an instrumental-particular tie, or an obligational tie that facilitates power and money exchanges. This five-level conceptualization is aimed at advancing future scholarship of guanxi in China's rapidly changing society.

Keyword :

China guanxi job-search networks

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GB/T 7714 Bian, Yanjie . The Prevalence and the Increasing Significance of Guanxi [J]. | CHINA QUARTERLY , 2018 , 235 : 597-621 .
MLA Bian, Yanjie . "The Prevalence and the Increasing Significance of Guanxi" . | CHINA QUARTERLY 235 (2018) : 597-621 .
APA Bian, Yanjie . The Prevalence and the Increasing Significance of Guanxi . | CHINA QUARTERLY , 2018 , 235 , 597-621 .
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More than double jeopardy: An intersectional analysis of persistent income disadvantages of Chinese female migrant workers SSCI Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 24 (2) , 246-269 | ASIAN JOURNAL OF WOMENS STUDIES
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Abstract :

Researchers have attributed the low wages of Chinese female migrant workers to the independent effects of gender and hukou (household registration). Using an intersectional perspective that recognizes the interplay of gender, birthplace, and hukou, this paper identifies six different groups of workers in China's urban labor market. Both in-depth interviews and survey data demonstrate that from 2003 to 2013, a decade seen as one of China's continuous economic growth and rising income inequality, female migrant workers earned the lowest wages among the six groups, and their income disadvantages were more than double the disadvantages of gender and hukou combined. This trend was persistent during this decade even after the workers' education, party membership, and labor market segregation were taken into account. These results imply a within-job wage differential for female migrant workers and a discriminatory wage policy that is tacitly observed by both state and private employers.

Keyword :

Intersectionality income inequality hukou female migrant workers China patriarchy

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GB/T 7714 Wang, Yixuan , Cheng, Cheng , Bian, Yanjie . More than double jeopardy: An intersectional analysis of persistent income disadvantages of Chinese female migrant workers [J]. | ASIAN JOURNAL OF WOMENS STUDIES , 2018 , 24 (2) : 246-269 .
MLA Wang, Yixuan 等. "More than double jeopardy: An intersectional analysis of persistent income disadvantages of Chinese female migrant workers" . | ASIAN JOURNAL OF WOMENS STUDIES 24 . 2 (2018) : 246-269 .
APA Wang, Yixuan , Cheng, Cheng , Bian, Yanjie . More than double jeopardy: An intersectional analysis of persistent income disadvantages of Chinese female migrant workers . | ASIAN JOURNAL OF WOMENS STUDIES , 2018 , 24 (2) , 246-269 .
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Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 SCIE
期刊论文 | 2018 , 392 (10159) , 1923-1994 | LANCET
Stanaway, Jeffrey D. | Afshin, Ashkan | Gakidou, Emmanuela | Lim, Stephen S. | Abate, Degu | Abate, Kalkidan Hassell | Abbafati, Cristiana | Abbasi, Nooshin | Abbastabar, Hedayat | Abd-Allah, Foad | Abdela, Jemal | Abdelalim, Ahmed | Abdollahpour, Ibrahim | Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi | Abebe, Molla | Abebe, Zegeye | Abera, Semaw F. | Abil, Olifan Zewdie | Abraha, Haftom Niguse | Abrham, Aklilu Roba | Abu-Raddad, Laith Jamal | Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E. | Accrombessi, Manfred Mario Kokou | Acharya, Dilaram | Acharya, Pawan | Adamu, Abdu A. | Adane, Akikw Awoke | Adebayo, Oladimeji M. | Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji | Adekanmbi, Victor | Ademi, Zanfina | Adetokunboh, Olatunji | Adib, Mina G. | Admasie, Amha | Adsuar, Jose C. | Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko | Afarideh, Mohsen | Agarwal, Gina | Aggarwal, Anju | Aghayan, Sargis Aghast | Agrawal, Anurag | Agrawal, Sutapa | Ahmadi, Alireza | Ahmadi, Mehdi | Ahmadieh, Hamid | Ahmed, Muktar Beshir | Aichour, Amani Nidhal | Aichour, Ibtihel | Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine | Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil | Akinyemiju, Tomi | Akseer, Nadia | Al-Aly, Ziyad | Al-Eyadhy, Ayman | Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M. | Alandab, Fares | Alam, Khurshid | Alam, Samiah | Alam, Tahiya | Alashi, Alaa | Alavian, Seyed Moayed | Alene, Kefyalew Addis | Ali, Komal | Ali, Syed Mustafa | Alijanzadeh, Mehran | Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza | Aljunid, Syed Mohamed | Alkerwi, Ala'a | Alla, Francois | Alsharif, Ubai | Altirkawi, Khalid | Alvis-Guzman, Nelson | Amare, Azmeraw T. | Ammar, Walid | Anber, Nahla Hamed | Anderson, Jason A. | Andrei, Catalina Liliana | Androudi, Sofia | Animut, Megbaru Debalkie | Anjomshoa, Mina | Ansha, Mustafa Geleto | Anto, Josep M. | Antonio, Carl Abelardo T. | Anwari, Palwasha | Appiah, Lambert Tetteh | Appiah, Seth Christopher Yaw | Arabloo, Jalal | Aremu, Olatunde | Amlov, Johan | Artaman, Al | Aryal, Krishna K. | Asayesh, Hamid | Ataro, Zerihun | Ausloos, Marcel | Avokpaho, Euripide F. G. A. | Awasthi, Ashish | Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala | Ayer, Rakesh | Ayuk, Tanabe B. | Azzopardi, Peter S. | Babazadeff, Arefeh | Badali, Hamid | Badawi, Alaa | Balakrishnan, Kalpana | Bali, Ayele Geleto | Ball, Kylie | Bellew, Shoshana H. | Banach, Maciej | Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar | Barac, Aleksandra | Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn | Bamighausen, Till Winfried | Barrero, Lope H. | Basu, Sanjay | Baune, Bernhard T. | Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad | Bedi, Neeraj | Beghi, Ettore | Behzadifar, Masoud | Behzadifar, Meysam | Bejoy, Yannick | Bekele, Bayu Begashaw | Bekru, Fyasu Tamru | Belay, Ezra | Belay, Yilhalem Abebe | Bell, Michelle L. | Bello, Aminu K. | Bennett, Derrick A. | Bensenor, Isabela M. | Bergeron, Gilles | Berhane, Adugnaw | Bemabe, Eduardo | Bemstein, Robert S. | Beuran, Mircea | Beyranvand, Tina | Bhala, Neeraj | Bhalla, Ashish | Bhattarai, Suraj | Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. | Biadgo, Belete | Bijani, Ali | Bikbov, Boris | Bilano, Ver | Bililign, Nigus | Bin Sayeed, Muhamad Shandaat | Bisanzio, Donal | Biswas, Tuhin | Bjorge, Tone | Blacker, Brigette F. | Bleyer, Archie | Borschmann, Rohan | Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R. | Boufous, Soufiane | Bourne, Rupert | Brady, Oliver J. | Brauer, Michael | Brazinova, Alexandra | Breitborde, Nicholas J. K. | Brenner, Hermann | Briko, Andrey Nikolaevich | Britton, Gabrielle | Brugha, Traolach | Buchbindet, Rachelle | Burnett, Richard T. | Busse, Reinhard | Butt, Zahid A. | Cahill, Leah E. | Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero | Campos-Nonato, Ismael R. | Cardenas, Rosario | Carreras, Giulia | Carrero, Juan J. | Carvalho, Felix | Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A. | Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo | Castro, Franz | Catala-Lopez, Ferran | Causey, Kate | Cercy, Kelly M. | Cerin, Ester | Chaiah, Yazan | Chang, Hying-Ti | Chang, Jung-Chen | Chang, Kai-Lan | Charlson, Fiona J. | Chattopadhyay, Aparajita | Chattu, Vijay Kumar | Chee, Miao Li | Cheng, Ching-Yu | Chew, Adrienne | Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia | Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel | Chin, Ken Lee | Chitheer, Abdulaal | Choi, Jee-Young J. | Chowdhury, Rajiv | Christensen, Hanne | Christopher, Devasahayam J. | Chung, Sheng-Chia | Cicuttini, Flavia M. | Grillo, Massimo | Cohen, Aaron J. | Collado-Mateo, Daniel | Cooper, Cyrus | Cooper, Owen R. | Coresh, Josef | Cornaby, Leslie | Cortesi, Paolo Angelo | Cortinovis, Monica | Costa, Megan | Cousin, Ewerton | Criqui, Michael H. | Cromwell, Elizabeth A. | Cundiff, David K. | Daba, Alenmeh Kabeta | Dachew, Berihun Assefa | Dadi, Abel Fekadu | Damasceno, Alberti Antonio Moura | Dandona, Lalit | Dandona, Rakhi | Darby, Sarah C. | Dargan, Paul I. | Daryani, Ahmed | Das Gupta, Rajat | Das Neves, Jose | Dasa, Tamirat Tesfaye | Dash, Aditya Prasad | Davitoiu, Dragos Virgil | Davletov, Kairat | De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa | De la Hoz, Fernando Pio | De Leo, Diego | De Neve, Jan-Walter | Degenhardt, Louisa | Deiparine, Selina | Dellavalle, Robert P. | Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam | Denova-Gutierrez, Edgar | Deribe, Kebede | Dervenis, Nikolaos | Deshpande, Aniruddha | Jarlais, Don C. Des | Dessie, Getenet Ayalew | Deveber, Gabrielle Aline | Dey, Subhojit | Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda | Dhimal, Meghnath | Dinberu, Mesfin Tadese | Ding, Eric L. | Diro, Helen Derara | Djalalinia, Shirin | Huyen Phoc Do | Dokova, Klara | Doku, David Teye | La Doyle, Kerrie | Driscoll, Tim R. | Dubey, Manisha | Dubljanin, Eleonora | Duken, Eyasu Ejeta | Duncan, Bruce B. | Duraes, Andre R. | Ebert, Natalie | Ebrahimi, Hedyeh | Ebrahimpour, Soheil | Edvardsson, David | Elfiong, Andem | Eggen, Anne Elise | El Bcheraoui, Charbel | El-Khatib, Iad | Elyazar, Iqbal Rf | Enayati, Ahmadali | Endries, Aman Yesuf | Er, Benjamin | Erskine, Holly E. | Eskandarieh, Sharareh | Esteghamati, Alireza | Estep, Kara | Fakhim, Hamed | Faramarzi, Mahbobeh | Fareed, Mohammad | Farid, Talha A. | Farinha, Carla Sofia E. Sa | Farioli, Andrea | Faro, Andre | Farvid, Maryam S. | Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein | Fatima, Batool | Fay, Kairsten A. | Fazaeli, Ali Akbar | Feigin, Valery L. | Feigl, Andrea B. | Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad | Fernandes, Eduarda | Fernandes, Joao C. | Ferrara, Giannina | Ferrari, Alize J. | Ferreira, Manuela L. | Filip, Irina | Finger, Jonas David | Fischer, Florian | Foigt, Nataliya A. | Foreman, Kyle J. | Fukumoto, Takeshi | Fullman, Nancy | Furst, Thomas | Furtado, Joao M. | Futran, Neal D. | Gall, Seana | Gallus, Silvan | Gamkrelidze, Amiran | Ganji, Morsaleh | Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L. | Gardner, William Ni | Gebre, Abadi Kahsu | Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay | Gebremichael, Teklu Gebrehiwo | Gelano, Tilayie Feto | Geleijnse, Johanna M. | Geramo, Yilma Chisha Dea | Gething, Peter W. | Geese, Kebede Embaye | Ghadimi, Reza | Ghadiri, Keyghobad | Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi | Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam | Ghimire, Mamata | Ghosh, Rakesh | Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal | Giampaoli, Simona | Gill, Paramjit Singh | Gill, Tiffany K. | Gillum, Richard F. | Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed | Giussani, Giorgia | Gnedovskaya, Elena V. | Godwin, William W. | Goli, Srinivas | Gomez-Dantes, Hector | Gona, Philimon N. | Gopalani, Sameer Vali | Goulart, Alessandra C. | Grada, Ayman | Grams, Morgan E. | Grosso, Giuseppe | Gugnani, Hanish Chander | Guo, Yuming | Gupta, Rahul | Gupta, Rajeev | Gupta, Tanush | Gutierrez, Reyna Alma | Gutierrez-Torres, Daniela S. | Haagsma, Juanita A. | Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie | Hachinski, Vladimir | Hafezi-Nejad, Nima | Hagos, Tekleberhan B. | Hailegiyorgis, Tewodros Tesfa | Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa | Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin | Haj-Mirzaian, Arya | Hamadeh, Randah R. | Hamidi, Samer | Handal, Alexis J. | Hankey, Graeme J. | Liao, Yuantao | Harb, Hilda L. | Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai | Haro, Josep Maria | Hassankhani, Hadi | Hassen, Hamid Yimam | Havmoeller, Rasmus | Hawley, Caitlin N. | Hay, Simon I. | Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar | Heibati, Behzad | Heidari, Behnam | Heidari, Mohsen | Hendrie, Delia | Henok, Andualem | Heredia-Pi, Ileana | Herteliu, Claudiu | Heydarpour, Fatemeh | Heydarpour, Sousan | Hibstu, Desalegn T. | Higazi, Tarig B. | Hilawe, Esayas Haregot | Hoek, Hans W. | Hoffiman, Howard J. | Hole, Michael K. | Rad, Enayatollah Homaie | Hoogar, Praveen | Hosgood, H. Dean | Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa | Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi | Hostiuc, Mihaela | Hostiuc, Sorin | Hoy, Damian G. | Hsairi, Mohamed | Hsiao, Thomas | Hu, Guoqing | Ha, Howard | Huang, John J. | Hussen, Mamusha Aman | Huynh, Chantal K. | Iburg, Kim Moesgaard | Ikeda, Nayu | Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen | Iqbal, Usman | Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi | Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter | Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful | Islami, Farhad | Jackson, Maria D. | Jacobsen, Kathryn H. | Jahangiry, Leila | Jahanmehr, Nader | Jain, Sudhir Kumar | Jakovljevic, Mihajlo | James, Spencer L. | Jassal, Simerjot K. | Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra | Jeemon, Panniyammakal | Jha, Ravi Prakash | Jha, Vivekanand | Ji, John S. | Jonas, Jost B. | Jonnagaddala, Jitendra | Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran | Joshi, Ankur | Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy | Jurisson, Mikk | Kabir, Zubair | Kahsay, Amaha | Kalani, Rizwan | Kanchan, Tanuj | Kant, Surya | Kar, Chittaranjan | Karami, Manoochehr | Matin, Behzad Karami | Karch, Andre | Karema, Corine | Karimi, Narges | Karimi, Seyed M. | Kasaeian, Amir | Kassa, Dessalegn H. | Kassa, Getachew Mullu | Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale | Kassebaum, Nicholas J. | Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal | Kaul, Anil | Kawakami, Norito | Kazemi, Zhila | Karyani, Ali Kazemi | Kefale, Adane Teshome | Keiyoro, Peter Njenga | Kemp, Grant Rodgers | Kengne, Andre Pascal | Keren, Andre | Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair | Khader, Yousef Saleh | Khafaei, Behzad | Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif | Khajavi, Alireza | Khalid, Nauman | Khalil, Ibrahim A. | Khan, Gulfaraz | Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb | Khan, Muhammad Ali | Khang, Young-Ho | Khater, Mona M. | Khazaei, Mohammad | Khazaie, Habibolah | Khoja, Abdullah T. | Khosravi, Ardeshir | Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein | Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A. | Kiirithio, Daniel N. | Kim, Cho-Il | Kim, Daniel | Kim, Young-Eun | Kim, Yun Jin | Kimokoti, Ruth W. | Kinfh, Yohannes | Kisa, Adnan | Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna | Kivimaki, Mika | Knibbs, Luke D. | Knudsen, Ann Kristin Skrindo | Kochhar, Sonali | Kokubo, Yoshihiro | Kolola, Tufa | Kopec, Jacek A. | Kosen, Soewarta | Koul, Parvaiz A. | Koyanagi, Ai | Kravchenko, Michael A. | Krishan, Kewal | Krohn, Kristopher J. | Kromhout, Hans | Defo, Barthelemy Kuate | Bicer, Burcu Kucuk | Kumar, G. Anil | Kumar, Manasi | Kuzin, Igor | Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe | Lachat, Carl | Lad, Deepesh P. | Lad, Sheetal D. | Lafranconi, Alessandra | Lalloo, Ratilal | Lallukka, Tea | Lami, Faris Hasan | Lang, Justin J. | Lansingh, Van C. | Larson, Samantha Leigh | Latifi, Arman | Lazarus, Jeffrey V. | Lee, Paul H. | Leigh, James | Leili, Mostafa | Leshargie, Chem Tesema | Leung, Janni | Levi, Miriam | Lewycka, Sonia | Li, Shanshan | Li, Yichong | Liang, Juan | Liang, Xiaofeng | Lian, Yu | Liben, Misgan Legesse | Lim, Lee-Ling | Linn, Shai | Liu, Shiwei | Lodha, Rakesh | Logroscino, Giancarlo | Lopez, Alan D. | Lorkowski, Stefan | Lotufo, Paulo A. | Lozano, Rafael | Lucas, Tim C. D. | Lunevicius, Raimundas | Ma, Stefan | Macarayan, Erlyn Rachele King | Machado, Isis Eloah | Madotto, Fabiana | Mai, Hue Thi | Majdan, Marek | Majdzadeh, Reza | Majeed, Azeem | Malekzadeh, Reza | Malta, Deborah Carvalho | Mamum, Abdullah A. | Manda, Ana-Laura | Manguerra, Helena | Mansournia, Mohammad Ali | Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni | Maravilla, Joemer C. | Marcenes, Wagner | Marks, Ashley | Martin, Randall V. | Martins, Sheila C. | Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlandio | Marz, Winfried | Marzan, Melvin B. | Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard | Mathur, Manu Rai | Mathur, Prashant | Matsushita, Kunihiro | Maulik, Pallab K. | Mazidi, Mohsen | McAlinden, Cohn | McGrath, John J. | McKee, Martin | Mehrotra, Ravi | Mehta, Kala M. | Mehta, Varshil | Meier, Toni | Mekonnen, Fantahun Ayenew | Melaku, Yohannes A. | Melese, Addisu | Melku, Mulugeta | Memiah, Peter T. N. | Memish, Ziad A. | Mendoza, Walter | Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese | Mensah, George A. | Mensink, Gert B. M. | Mereta, Seid Tiku | Meretola, Atte | Meretoja, Tuomo J. | Mestrovic, Tomislav | Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane | Miazgowski, Bartosz | Miazgowski, Tomasz | Millear, Anoushka I. | Miller, Ted R. | Miller-Petrie, Molly Katherine | Mini, G. K. | Mirarefin, Mojde | Mirica, Andreea | Mirrakhimov, Erkin M. | Misganaw, Awoke Temesgen | Mitiku, Habtamu | Moazen, Babak | Mohajer, Bahram | Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin | Mohammadi, Moslem | Mohammadifard, Noushin | Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Mousa | Mohammed, Shafiu | Mohebi, Farnam | Mokdad, Ali H. | Molokhia, Mariam | Momeniha, Fatemeh | Monasta, Lorenzo | Moodley, Yoshan | Moradi, Ghobad | Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar | Moradinazar, Mehdi | Moraga, Paula | Morawska, Lidia | Morgado-Da-Costa, Joana | Morrison, Shane Douglas | Moschos, Marilita M. | Mouodi, Simin | Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam | Mozaffarian, Dariush | Mruts, Kalayu Brhane | Muche, Achenef Asmamaw | Muchie, Kindle Fentahun | Mueller, Ulrich Otto | Muhammed, Oumer Sada | Mukhopadhyay, Satinath | Muller, Kate | Musa, Kamarul Imran | Mustafa, Ghulam | Nabhan, Ashraf F. | Naghavi, Mohsen | Naheed, Aliya | Nahvijou, Azin | Naik, Gurudatta | Naik, Nitish | Najafi, Land | Nangia, Vinay | Nansseu, Jobert Richie | Nascimento, Bruno Ramos | Neal, Bruce | Neamati, Nahid | Negoi, Iona T. | Negoi, Ruxandra Irina | Neupane, Subas | Newton, Charles Richard James | Ngunjiri, Josephine V. | Anh Quynh Nguyen | Nguyen, Grant | Ha Thu Nguyen | Huong Lan Thi Nguyen | Huong Thanh Nguyen | Minh Nguyen | Nam Ba Nguyen | Nichols, Emma | Nie, Jing | Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini | Nirayo, Yirga Legesse | Nishi, Nobuo | Nixon, Molly R. | Nojomi, Marzieh | Nomura, Shuhei | Norheim, Ole F. | Noroozi, Mehdi | Norrving, Bo | Noubiap, Jean Jacques | Nouri, Hamid Reza | Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour | Nowroozi, Mohammad Reza | Nsoesie, Elaine O. | Nyasulu, Peter S. | Obermeyer, Carla M. | Odell, Christopher M. | Ofori-Asenso, Richard | Ogbo, Felix Akpojene | Oh, In-Hwan | Oladimeji, Olanrewaju | Olagunju, Andrew T. | Olagunju, Tinuke O. | Olivares, Pedro R. | Olsen, Helen Elizabeth | Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola | Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun | Ong, Kanyin L. | Ong, Sok King | Oren, Eyal | Orpana, Heather M. | Ortiz, Alberto | Ota, Erika | Otstavnov, Stanislav S. | Overland, Simon | Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo | Pacella, Mahesh P. A. Rosana | Pakhare, Abhijit P. | Pakpour, Amir H. | Pana, Adrian | Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra | Park, Eun-Kee | Parry, Charles D. H. | Parisian, Hadi | Patel, Shanti | Pati, Sanghamitra | Patil, Snehal T. | Patle, Ajay | Patton, George C. | Paudel, Deepak | Paulson, Katherine R. | Ballesteros, Wayra Citlali Paz | Pearce, Neil | Pereira, Alexandre | Pereira, David M. | Perico, Norberto | Pesudovs, Konrad | Petzold, Max | Hai Quang Pham | Phillips, Michael R. | Pillay, Julian David | Piradov, Michael A. | Pirsaheb, Meghdad | Pischon, Tobias | Pishgar, Farhad | Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer | Plass, Dietrich | Polinder, Suzanne | Polkinghorne, Kevan R. | Postma, Maarten J. | Poulton, Richie | Pourshams, Akram | Poustchi, Hossein | Prabhakaran, Dorairal | Prakash, Swayam | Prasad, Narayan | Purcell, Caroline A. | Purwar, Manorama B. | Qorbani, Mostafa | Radfar, Amir | Rafay, Anwar | Rafiei, Alireza | Rahim, Fakher | Rahimi, Zohreh | Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin | Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa | Rahman, Mahfuzar | Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur | Rahman, Muhammad Aziz | Rai, Rajesh Kumar | Rajati, Fatemeh | Rajsic, Sasa | Raju, Sree Bhushan | Ram, Usha | Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal | Ranjan, Prabhat | Rath, Goura Kishor | Rawaf, David Laith | Rawaf, Salman | Reddy, K. Srinath | Rehm, Colin D. | Rehm, Jurgen | Reiner, Robert C. | Reitsma, Marissa B. | Remuzzi, Giuseppe | Renzaho, Andre M. N. | Resnikoff, Serge | Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam | Rezaei, Satar | Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P. | Rivera, Juan A. | Roba, Kedir Teji | Rodrigues-Ramirez, Sonia | Roever, Leonardo | Roman, Yesenia | Ronfani, Luca | Roshandel, Gholamreza | Rostami, Ali | Roth, Gregory A. | Rothenbacher, Dietrich | Roy, Ambuj | Rubagotti, Enrico | Rushton, Lesley | Sabanayagam, Charumathi | Sachdev, Perminder S. | Saddik, Basema | Sadeghi, Ehsan | Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi | Safari, Hosein | Safari, Yahya | Safari-Faramani, Roya | Safdarian, Mandi | Safi, Sare | Safiri, Saeid | Sagar, Rajesh | Sahebkar, Amirhossein | Sahraian, Mohammad Ali | Sajadi, Haniye Sadat | Salam, Nasir | Salamati, Payman | Saleem, Zikria | Salimi, Yahya | Salimeadeh, Hamideh | Salomon, Joshua A. | Salvi, Devashri Digvijay | Satz, Inbal | Samy, Abdullah M. | Sanabria, Juan | Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores | Sanchez-Pimienta, Tania G. | Sanders, Taren | Sang, Yingying | Santomauro, Damian Francesco | Santos, Itamar S. | Santos, Joao Vasco | Milicevic, Milena M. Santric | Jose, Bruno Piassi Sao | Sardana, Mayank | Sacker, Abdur Razzaque | Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo | Sarrafzadegan, Nizal | Sartorius, Benn | Sarvi, Shahabeddin | Sathian, Brifesh | Satpathy, Maheswar | Sawant, Arundhati R. | Sawhney, Monika | Saylan, Mete | Sayyah, Mehdi | Schaeffner, Elke | Schmidt, Maria Ines | Schneider, Ione J. 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D. | Soriano, Joan B. | Soyiri, Ireneous N. | Spinelli, Angela | Sposato, Luciano A. | Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T. | Srinivasan, Vinay | Starodubow, Vladimir I. | Steckling, Nadine | Stein, Dan J. | Stein, Murray B. | Stevanovic, Goran | Stockfelt, Leo | Stokes, Mark A. | Sturua, Lela | Subart, Michelle L. | Sudaryanto, Agus | Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale | Sulo, Gerhard | Sunguya, Bruno F. | Sur, Patrick John | Sykes, Bryan I. | Szoeke, Cassandra E. I. | Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael | Tabuchi, Takahiro | Tadakamadla, Santosh Kumar | Takahashi, Ken | Tandon, Nikhil | Tassew, Segen Gebremeskel | Tavakkoli, Mohammad | Taveira, Nuno | Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash | Tekalign, Tigist Gashaw | Tekelemedhin, Shishay Wandey | Tekle, Merhawi Gebremedhin | Temesgen, Habtamu | Temsah, Mohamad-Rani | Temsah, Omar | Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman | Tessema, Belay | Teweldemedhin, Mebrahtu | Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman | Theis, Andrew | Thirunavukkarasu, Sathish | Thomas, Hannah J. | Thomas, Matthew Lloyd | Thomas, Nihal | Thurston, George D. | Tilahun, Binyam | Tillmana, Taavi | To, Quyen G. | Tobollik, Myriarn | Tonelli, Marcello | Topor-Madry, Roman | Torre, Anna E. | Tortajada-Girbes, Miguel | Touvier, Mathilde | Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto | Towbin, Jeffrey A. | Tran, Bach Xuan | Tran, Khanh Baca | Truelsen, Thomas Clement | Nu Thi Truong | Tsadik, Afewerki Gebremeskel | Car, Lorainne Tudor | Tuzcu, E. Murat | Tymeson, Hayley D. | Tyrovolas, Stefanos | Ukwaja, Kingsley N. | Ullah, Irfan | Updike, Rachel L. | Usman, Muhammad Shariq | Uthman, Olalekan A. | Vaduganathan, Mutblab | Vaezi, Afsane | Valdez, Pascual R. | Van Donkelaar, Aaron | Varavikova, Elena | Varughese, Santosh | Vasankari, Tommi Juhani | Venkateswaran, Vidhya | Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy | Villafaina, Santos | Violante, Francesco S. | Vladimirov, Sergey Konstantinovitch | Vlassov, Vasily | Vollset, Stein Emil | Vos, Theo | Vbsoughi, Kia | Vu, Giang Thu | Vujcic, Isidora S. | Wagnew, Fasil Shiferaw | Waheed, Yasir | Waller, Stephen G. | Walson, Judd L. | Wang, Yafeng | Wang, Yanping | Wang, Yuan-Pang | Weiderpass, Elisabete | Weintraub, Robert G. | Weldegebreal, Fitsum | Werdecker, Andrea | Weiknah, Adhena Ayaliew | West, J. Jason | Westerman, Ronny | Whiteford, Harvey A. | Widecka, Justyna | Wijeratne, Tissa | Winkler, Andrea Sylvia | Wiyeh, Alison B. | Wiysonge, Charles Shey | Wolfe, Charles D. 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WoS CC Cited Count: 1
Abstract&Keyword Cite

Abstract :

Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk outcome associations. With each annual GBD study, we update the GBD CRA to incorporate improved methods, new risks and risk outcome pairs, and new data on risk exposure levels and risk outcome associations. Methods We used the CRA framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or groups of risks from 1990 to 2017. This study included 476 risk outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from 46 749 randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We explored the relationship between development and risk exposure by modelling the relationship between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and risk-weighted exposure prevalence and estimated expected levels of exposure and risk-attributable burden by SDI. Finally, we explored temporal changes in risk-attributable DALYs by decomposing those changes into six main component drivers of change as follows: (1) population growth; (2) changes in population age structures; (3) changes in exposure to environmental and occupational risks; (4) changes in exposure to behavioural risks; (5) changes in exposure to metabolic risks; and (6) changes due to all other factors, approximated as the risk-deleted death and DALY rates, where the risk-deleted rate is the rate that would be observed had we reduced the exposure levels to the TMREL for all risk factors included in GBD 2017. Findings In 2017,34.1 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 33.3-35.0) deaths and 121 billion (144-1.28) DALYs were attributable to GBD risk factors. Globally, 61.0% (59.6-62.4) of deaths and 48.3% (46.3-50.2) of DALYs were attributed to the GBD 2017 risk factors. When ranked by risk-attributable DALYs, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) was the leading risk factor, accounting for 10.4 million (9.39-11.5) deaths and 218 million (198-237) DALYs, followed by smoking (7.10 million [6.83-7.37] deaths and 182 million [173-193] DALYs), high fasting plasma glucose (6.53 million [5.23-8.23] deaths and 171 million [144-201] DALYs), high body-mass index (BMI; 4.72 million [2.99-6.70] deaths and 148 million [98.6-202] DALYs), and short gestation for birthweight (1.43 million [1.36-1.51] deaths and 139 million [131-147] DALYs). In total, risk-attributable DALYs declined by 4.9% (3.3-6.5) between 2007 and 2017. In the absence of demographic changes (ie, population growth and ageing), changes in risk exposure and risk-deleted DALYs would have led to a 23.5% decline in DALYs during that period. Conversely, in the absence of changes in risk exposure and risk-deleted DALYs, demographic changes would have led to an 18.6% increase in DALYs during that period. The ratios of observed risk exposure levels to exposure levels expected based on SDI (O/E ratios) increased globally for unsafe drinking water and household air pollution between 1990 and 2017. This result suggests that development is occurring more rapidly than are changes in the underlying risk structure in a population. Conversely, nearly universal declines in O/E ratios for smoking and alcohol use indicate that, for a given SDI, exposure to these risks is declining. In 2017, the leading Level 4 risk factor for age-standardised DALY rates was high SBP in four super-regions: central Europe, eastern Europe, and central Asia; north Africa and Middle East; south Asia; and southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania. The leading risk factor in the high-income super-region was smoking, in Latin America and Caribbean was high BMI, and in sub-Saharan Africa was unsafe sex. O/E ratios for unsafe sex in sub-Saharan Africa were notably high, and those for alcohol use in north Africa and the Middle East were notably low. Interpretation By quantifying levels and trends in exposures to risk factors and the resulting disease burden, this assessment offers insight into where past policy and programme efforts might have been successful and highlights current priorities for public health action. Decreases in behavioural, environmental, and occupational risks have largely offset the effects of population growth and ageing, in relation to trends in absolute burden. Conversely, the combination of increasing metabolic risks and population ageing will probably continue to drive the increasing trends in non-communicable diseases at the global level, which presents both a public health challenge and opportunity. We see considerable spatiotemporal heterogeneity in levels of risk exposure and risk-attributable burden. Although levels of development underlie some of this heterogeneity, O/E ratios show risks for which countries are overperforming or underperforming relative to their level of development. As such, these ratios provide a benchmarking tool to help to focus local decision making. Our findings reinforce the importance of both risk exposure monitoring and epidemiological research to assess causal connections between risks and health outcomes, and they highlight the usefulness of the GBD study in synthesising data to draw comprehensive and robust conclusions that help to inform good policy and strategic health planning. Copyright (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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GB/T 7714 Stanaway, Jeffrey D. , Afshin, Ashkan , Gakidou, Emmanuela et al. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 [J]. | LANCET , 2018 , 392 (10159) : 1923-1994 .
MLA Stanaway, Jeffrey D. et al. "Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017" . | LANCET 392 . 10159 (2018) : 1923-1994 .
APA Stanaway, Jeffrey D. , Afshin, Ashkan , Gakidou, Emmanuela , Lim, Stephen S. , Abate, Degu , Abate, Kalkidan Hassell et al. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 . | LANCET , 2018 , 392 (10159) , 1923-1994 .
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