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Theoretical study of cryogen spray cooling with R134a, R404A and R1234yf: Comparison and clinical potential application EI
期刊论文 | 2019 , 1058-1067 | Applied Thermal Engineering
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Abstract :

In laser dermatology, cryogen spray cooling has been used to protect the epidermis from unwanted thermal damage. In this work, spray characteristics and surface heat transfer dynamics were simulated by two-way coupling hybrid vortex method to evaluate the surface cooling capacity of R134a, R404A and R1234yf in terms of cooling density and effective heat flux. Simulation results reveal that R404A has the largest cooling capacity and smallest dispersion. R1234yf has similar spray characteristics but smaller dispersion compared with R134a. The maximum effective heat flux for R134a, R404A and R1234yf was determined as 262.1, 407.5 and 225.8 kW/m2 at the spray distances of 25.6, 30.8 and 25.1 mm, respectively. Substituting the environment friendly R1234yf for R134a can remarkably reduce global warming potential by over 1430 times and increase cooling density but insufficient cooling capacity. The effective heat flux of R1234yf can be enhanced by 18.8% by reducing the nozzle diameter and decreasing the back pressure (D = 0.4 mm, Pb = 0.01 MPa). This result is comparable with that of R134a under 1 atm and provides a theoretical basis for R1234yf potential application in clinics. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

Keyword :

Cryogen spray cooling Environment friendly Global warming potential Heat Transfer enhancement R1234yf Spray characteristics Surface heat transfer Theoretical study

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GB/T 7714 Chen, Bin , Tian, Jiameng , Wang, Rui et al. Theoretical study of cryogen spray cooling with R134a, R404A and R1234yf: Comparison and clinical potential application [J]. | Applied Thermal Engineering , 2019 : 1058-1067 .
MLA Chen, Bin et al. "Theoretical study of cryogen spray cooling with R134a, R404A and R1234yf: Comparison and clinical potential application" . | Applied Thermal Engineering (2019) : 1058-1067 .
APA Chen, Bin , Tian, Jiameng , Wang, Rui , Zhou, Zhifu . Theoretical study of cryogen spray cooling with R134a, R404A and R1234yf: Comparison and clinical potential application . | Applied Thermal Engineering , 2019 , 1058-1067 .
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Criteria of pressure and thermal damage during laser irradiation of port wine stains: Which is dominant to vascular lesions? EI SCIE
期刊论文 | 2019 , 132 , 848-860 | International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
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Abstract :

Port wine stains (PWSs) are congenital dermal vessel proliferations mainly treated with laser therapy. The complete removal of the vessel lesions is rarely achieved because of a lack of discriminatory analysis of the two competitive laser damages to blood vessels, namely, pressure damage and thermal damage. Unlike complete vessel constriction, which is caused by thermal damage that can be measured by temperature-related integral Ω, vessel rupture results from pressure damage, which has been seldom studied. In this study, the rupture potential index based on wall pressure (RPIP) was calculated as the ratio of locally acting pressure to the pressure threshold. RPIP > 1 and Ω > 103 were adopted as benchmarks to judge pressure damage (vessel rupture) and thermal damage (complete vessel constriction), respectively. A computational fluid dynamics simulation was carried out to provide the temperature and pressure field in the PWS vessel model during irradiation by 595 nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) or 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. Numerical results showed that for the 595 nm laser, vessels constantly underwent rupture. The area of high RPIP determined the degree of rupture by predicting the large and multiple rupture locations of the vessel. By contrast, for the 1064 nm laser, complete constriction was the main damage type. To a single vessel of 100 μm diameter, the optimized laser parameters were E = 10 J/cm2 with tp = 6 ms for 595 nm PDL and E = 180 J/cm2 with tp = 6 ms 1064 nm for Nd:YAG laser. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

Keyword :

Computational fluid dynamics simulations Discriminatory analysis Laser treatment Port wine stains Pulsed dye lasers Temperature and pressures Vessel constriction Vessel rupture

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GB/T 7714 Jia, Hao , Chen, Bin , Li, Dong . Criteria of pressure and thermal damage during laser irradiation of port wine stains: Which is dominant to vascular lesions? [J]. | International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer , 2019 , 132 : 848-860 .
MLA Jia, Hao et al. "Criteria of pressure and thermal damage during laser irradiation of port wine stains: Which is dominant to vascular lesions?" . | International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 132 (2019) : 848-860 .
APA Jia, Hao , Chen, Bin , Li, Dong . Criteria of pressure and thermal damage during laser irradiation of port wine stains: Which is dominant to vascular lesions? . | International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer , 2019 , 132 , 848-860 .
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Multiple laser pulses in conjunction with an optical clearing agent to improve the curative effect of cutaneous vascular lesions SCIE PubMed Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 33 (6) , 1295-1306 | LASERS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE
WoS CC Cited Count: 1
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Abstract :

Port-wine stain (PWS) birthmark is a congenital microvascular malformation of the skin. A 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser can achieve a deeper treatment, but the weak absorption by blood limits its clinical application. Multiple laser pulses (MLPs) are a potential solution to enhance the curative effect of a Nd:YAG laser. To reduce the pulse number (p (n)) required for the thermal destruction of the blood vessel, the effect of glucose in conjunction with MLP was investigated. In vivo experiments were performed on a dorsal skin chamber model. Different concentrations (20, 25, 30, and 40%) of glucose were applied to the sub-dermal side of the hamster skin before laser irradiation. Identical vessels with diameters of 200 +/- 30 and 110 +/- 20 mu m were chosen as representatives of typical PWS vessels. Instant thermal responses of the blood vessel were recorded by a high-speed camera. The required p (n) for blood vessel damage was compared with that without glucose pretreatment. Results showed that the use of glucose with a concentration of 20% combined with MLP Nd:YAG laser to damage blood vessels is more appropriate because severe hemorrhage or carbonization easily appeared in blood vessels at higher glucose concentration of 25, 30, and 40%. When 20% glycerol is pretreated on the sub-dermal hamster skin, the required p (n) for blood vessel damage can be significantly decreased for different power densities. For example, p (n) can be reduced by 40% when the power density is 57 J/cm(2). In addition, generation of cavitation and bubbles in blood vessels is difficult upon pretreatment with glucose. The combination of glucose with MLP Nd:YAG laser could be an effective protocol for reducing the p (n) required for blood vessel damage. Randomized controlled trial (RCT) and human trials will be conducted in the future.

Keyword :

Multiple laser pulses Optical cleaning agent Laser therapy Port-wine stain Glucose

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GB/T 7714 Ma, Jun , Chen, Bin , Li, Dong et al. Multiple laser pulses in conjunction with an optical clearing agent to improve the curative effect of cutaneous vascular lesions [J]. | LASERS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE , 2018 , 33 (6) : 1295-1306 .
MLA Ma, Jun et al. "Multiple laser pulses in conjunction with an optical clearing agent to improve the curative effect of cutaneous vascular lesions" . | LASERS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE 33 . 6 (2018) : 1295-1306 .
APA Ma, Jun , Chen, Bin , Li, Dong , Zhang, Yue , Ying, Zhaoxia . Multiple laser pulses in conjunction with an optical clearing agent to improve the curative effect of cutaneous vascular lesions . | LASERS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE , 2018 , 33 (6) , 1295-1306 .
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Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Hydrogen Production by Catalytic Gasification of Key Intermediates of Biomass in Supercritical Water EI SCIE
期刊论文 | 2018 , 140 (4) | JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME
WoS CC Cited Count: 2
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Abstract :

Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an efficient and clean conversion of biomass due to the unique chemical and physical properties. Anthracene and furfural are the key intermediates in SCWG, and their microscopic reaction mechanism in supercritical water may provide information for reactor optimization and selection of optimal operating condition. Density functional theory (DFT) and reactive empirical force fields (ReaxFF) were combined to investigate the molecular dynamics of catalytic gasification of anthracene and furfural. The simulation results showed that Cu and Ni obviously increased the production of H radicals, therefore the substance SCWG process. Ni catalyst decreased the production of H-2 with the residence time of 500 ps while significantly increased CO production and finally increased the syngas production. Ni catalyst was proved to decrease the free carbon production to prohibit the carbon deposition on the surface of active sites; meanwhile, Cu catalyst increased the production of free carbon.

Keyword :

supercritical water DFT ReaxFF furfural anthracene

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GB/T 7714 Jin, Hui , Chen, Bin , Zhao, Xiao et al. Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Hydrogen Production by Catalytic Gasification of Key Intermediates of Biomass in Supercritical Water [J]. | JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME , 2018 , 140 (4) .
MLA Jin, Hui et al. "Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Hydrogen Production by Catalytic Gasification of Key Intermediates of Biomass in Supercritical Water" . | JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME 140 . 4 (2018) .
APA Jin, Hui , Chen, Bin , Zhao, Xiao , Cao, Changqing . Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Hydrogen Production by Catalytic Gasification of Key Intermediates of Biomass in Supercritical Water . | JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME , 2018 , 140 (4) .
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Gold nanospheres enhanced photothermal therapy in a rat model SCIE PubMed Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 50 (6) , 669-679 | LASERS IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE
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Abstract :

Background and ObjectiveEfficient photothermal conversion of gold nanoparticles with strong light absorption suggests their wide use as selective photothermal agents in biomedical fields. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of gold nanospheres (GNPs) as exogenous visible light absorbers to improve laser treatment of port-wine stains. Materials and MethodsThiol-terminated methoxypolyethylene glycol modified GNPs (PEG-GNPs) with peak extinction matching the visible light wavelength of the laser being used were synthesized. An in vitro capillary experiment was prepared to investigate the thermal response of blood vessels with and without injection of 4.54mg PEG-GNPs in mice prior to irradiation by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 532nm. ResultsThe in vitro results demonstrated that the photocoagulation size in blood vessels after exposed to laser light increased with the increment of concentration of PEG-GNPs in blood within a certain range. However, the unwanted thermal response (i.e., cavitation) occurred when the concentration of PEG-GNPs in blood was larger than 2.5mg/ml. The in vivo results suggested that more obvious blood thermal response can be induced by laser light after injection of PEG-GNPs. After injection of 4.54mg PEG-GNPs, laser radiant exposure required for thread-like constriction of blood vessels decreased from 12.5 to 9.8J/cm(2) with the pulse duration of 10ms, from 15 to 11.85J/cm(2) with the pulse duration of 30ms, respectively. ConclusionThis in vitro and in vivo experimental results show that PEG-GNPs combined with laser light could be a promising modality to reduce the radiant exposure required for obvious blood thermal response, thereby providing a potential strategy for improving the laser treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:669-679, 2018. (c) 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Keyword :

gold nanospheres blood thermal response photothermal therapy port-wine stains

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GB/T 7714 Xing, Linzhuang , Chen, Bin , Li, Dong et al. Gold nanospheres enhanced photothermal therapy in a rat model [J]. | LASERS IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE , 2018 , 50 (6) : 669-679 .
MLA Xing, Linzhuang et al. "Gold nanospheres enhanced photothermal therapy in a rat model" . | LASERS IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE 50 . 6 (2018) : 669-679 .
APA Xing, Linzhuang , Chen, Bin , Li, Dong , Wu, Wenjuan , Ying, Zhaoxia . Gold nanospheres enhanced photothermal therapy in a rat model . | LASERS IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE , 2018 , 50 (6) , 669-679 .
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Numerical study on the spray and thermal characteristics of R404A flashing spray using OpenFOAM EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 117 , 1312-1321 | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
WoS CC Cited Count: 3
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Abstract :

Flashing spray is of great importance in a variety of engineering fields, which occurs as the pressurized liquid is released into a low-pressure environment below its saturation pressure. The initial stage close to the nozzle exit is furthest from thermodynamic equilibrium and the information of droplets is difficult to obtain by experimental ways due to the high density of droplets. This paper conducts a systematically numerical study on the spray and thermal characteristics of R404A flashing spray with high volatility and low saturation temperature, based on the open source tool OpenFOAM-2.4.0. Key physics involved in the complex process, including droplet flash boiling, evaporation, droplet transport, breakup, heat transfer and interaction between droplet and gas phases are taken into consideration, through Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes simulations (RANS) with Eulerian Lagrangian framework for the continuous phase and discrete phase respectively. The spray morphology and droplet diameter coincide reasonably with those in the experiment. It presents explosive atomization with large cone angle and quick expansion towards the radial direction near the nozzle exit. Droplet diameter and temperature undergoes a rapid reduction, while velocity accelerates in this region. A warm core with high droplet temperature exists in the spray central region, and droplet velocity is also larger than that at spray periphery. The ambient pressure significantly affects spray profile, penetration distance and velocity. The whole spray profile transforms to the expansion shape as the pressure increases above 0.5 MPa whereby it presents contractive one in low ambient pressure. Higher ambient pressure leads to lower droplet velocity but with longer penetration distance. These numerical results provide further insight into the mechanism of the flashing spray with volatile cryogens. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

Spray and thermal characteristics OpenFOAM Numerical simulation R404A Flashing spray

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GB/T 7714 Zhou, Zhi-Fu , Lu, Guan-Yu , Chen, Bin . Numerical study on the spray and thermal characteristics of R404A flashing spray using OpenFOAM [J]. | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER , 2018 , 117 : 1312-1321 .
MLA Zhou, Zhi-Fu et al. "Numerical study on the spray and thermal characteristics of R404A flashing spray using OpenFOAM" . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER 117 (2018) : 1312-1321 .
APA Zhou, Zhi-Fu , Lu, Guan-Yu , Chen, Bin . Numerical study on the spray and thermal characteristics of R404A flashing spray using OpenFOAM . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER , 2018 , 117 , 1312-1321 .
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Numerical Investigation of the Thermal Response to Skin Tissue during Laser Lipolysis EI SCIE Scopus CSCD
期刊论文 | 2018 , 27 (5) , 470-478 | JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE
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Laser lipolysis can effectively treat obesity and its associated diseases, such as hypertension, fatty liver, and hyperlipidemia. However, currently available invasive laser lipolysis, which transmits laser to a fiber-optic catheter inserted into the subcutaneous tissue for irradiation through an incision, may cause hematomas, infections, and empyrosis. The current study presents a novel, noninvasive approach for laser lipolysis, which directly irradiates the intact skin surface without an incision and preferentially targets adipose tissue at the near-infrared band. High laser energy is necessary to damage adipocytes; however, this may carbonate and burn the dermis. Therefore, the introduction of skin cooling is essential to avoid unwanted hyperthermal injury and improve the threshold of radiant exposure. In the current study, we investigated a novel noninvasive approach assisted with skin cooling by establishing a homogeneous multi-layer skin model. In this method, light propagation in the skin was simulated by using the Monte Carlo method. Skin cooling was employed before laser irradiation to protect the epidermis from thermal damage, which was treated as a boundary condition based on Newton's law. The numerical results showed that the photons were deposited in the adipose layer more than in the other layers. Laser can effectively destroy adipose tissue at an energy density of >200 J/cm(2) at 1210 nm wavelength, whereas at least 300 J/cm(2) is required at 1064 nm to achieve the same effect. In this experiment, at >5 s pulse width, the selectivity of adipose was not obvious. Moreover, the results indicated that 60 ms R134a or R404a spray can effectively reduce the temperature of the epidermis. R404a exhibited a stronger cooling effect than R134a. Cold air cooling at -10 degrees C for 10 s could effectively decrease the skin temperature, and deeper cooling could be achieved by cold air cooling compared with cryogen spray cooling.

Keyword :

laser lipolysis skin cooling multi-layer skin model Nd:YAG laser

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GB/T 7714 Chen, Bin , Zhang, Yue , Li, Dong . Numerical Investigation of the Thermal Response to Skin Tissue during Laser Lipolysis [J]. | JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE , 2018 , 27 (5) : 470-478 .
MLA Chen, Bin et al. "Numerical Investigation of the Thermal Response to Skin Tissue during Laser Lipolysis" . | JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE 27 . 5 (2018) : 470-478 .
APA Chen, Bin , Zhang, Yue , Li, Dong . Numerical Investigation of the Thermal Response to Skin Tissue during Laser Lipolysis . | JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE , 2018 , 27 (5) , 470-478 .
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Parametric effect investigation on surface heat transfer performances during cryogen spray cooling EI Scopus SCIE
期刊论文 | 2018 , 143 , 767-776 | Applied Thermal Engineering
SCOPUS Cited Count: 1
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Abstract :

Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) has been a widely used auxiliary tool in laser dermatology such as port wine stain to prevent unspecific thermal injury due to laser energy absorption by the melanin in the epidermis. The present paper presents an experimental research on the effect of ambient temperature, relative humidity, and initial substrate temperature on heat transfer performances during R134a spray cooling. Results demonstrated that the cooling capability of R134a spray cooling can be obtained with small ambient temperature (Ta = 10 °C) and relative humidity (RH = 25%). Further investigation of cooling mechanism was conducted by studying the temporal and radial heat transfer distributions with different spray distances and nozzles. The heat transfer distribution presented large non-uniformity along radial locations. Two uniform cooling sub-regions of 0 ≤ r < 2 mm and 6 mm ≤ r < 10 mm were found under the spray distance of 30 mm and nozzle with an inner diameter of 1.0 mm. The heat transfer barrier was produced due to indirect contact between cold droplets and the substrate surface caused by bubbles and heat transfer is weakened by the low thermal conductivity of these bubbles. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

Keyword :

2D filters Cryogen spray cooling Heat transfer distributions Heat transfer performance Laser energy absorption Low thermal conductivity Substrate temperature Surface heat transfer

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GB/T 7714 Tian, Jia-Meng , Chen, Bin , Zhou, Zhi-Fu . Parametric effect investigation on surface heat transfer performances during cryogen spray cooling [J]. | Applied Thermal Engineering , 2018 , 143 : 767-776 .
MLA Tian, Jia-Meng et al. "Parametric effect investigation on surface heat transfer performances during cryogen spray cooling" . | Applied Thermal Engineering 143 (2018) : 767-776 .
APA Tian, Jia-Meng , Chen, Bin , Zhou, Zhi-Fu . Parametric effect investigation on surface heat transfer performances during cryogen spray cooling . | Applied Thermal Engineering , 2018 , 143 , 767-776 .
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A 3rd-order polynomial temperature profile model for the heating and evaporation of moving droplets EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 110 , 162-170 | APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING | IF: 3.771
WoS CC Cited Count: 8 SCOPUS Cited Count: 9
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Abstract :

Droplet heating and evaporation is of fundamental importance in various engineering applications. Based on the assumption that droplets' internal temperature follows a third-order polynomial distribution, a new liquid phase model is proposed, taking into account both temperature gradient and internal circulation inside the droplet in terms of Hill's spherical vortex. The new liquid model and other commonly used liquid models are compared with the experimental data outlined in the literature. The internal temperature predicted by the new model matches the experimental data of an n-Decane droplet heating best, whereby the enhancement of heat transport by internal circulation is correctly reflected. In comparison, other models always predict the monotonic variation of internal temperature during the initial heating period, which deviates widely from the experimental data. The new model displays the best performance with regard to predicting droplet evaporation in the later Vaporizing period, whereas the parabolic temperature profile model and conduction limit model significantly underestimate and overestimate the droplet evaporation rate, respectively. The CPU requirement for the new model is far less than that for the conduction limit model and the effective thermal conductivity model with an order of magnitude, which shows its potential for implementation into CFD codes. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

Computational efficiency Internal circulation Liquid phase model Droplet evaporation Heating Hill's spherical vortex

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GB/T 7714 Zhou, Zhi-Fu , Li, Wei -Yu , Chen, Bin et al. A 3rd-order polynomial temperature profile model for the heating and evaporation of moving droplets [J]. | APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING , 2017 , 110 : 162-170 .
MLA Zhou, Zhi-Fu et al. "A 3rd-order polynomial temperature profile model for the heating and evaporation of moving droplets" . | APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING 110 (2017) : 162-170 .
APA Zhou, Zhi-Fu , Li, Wei -Yu , Chen, Bin , Wang, Guo-Xiang . A 3rd-order polynomial temperature profile model for the heating and evaporation of moving droplets . | APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING , 2017 , 110 , 162-170 .
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Nd:YAG laser-induced morphology change and photothermal conversion of gold nanorods with potential application in the treatment of port-wine stain SCIE PubMed Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 32 (3) , 629-640 | LASERS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE | IF: 1.949
WoS CC Cited Count: 3 SCOPUS Cited Count: 3
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Abstract :

Based on the principle of selective photothermolysis, 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser has great potential for the treatment of deeper and larger PWS. However, the clinical effectiveness is limited because of the weak absorption of blood to Nd:YAG laser. The aim of this study is to obtain the optimal irradiation conditions to effectively destroy vascular lesions with the assistance of PEG-modified gold NRs to enhance blood absorption of Nd:YAG laser. In our study, PEG-modified gold NRs were prepared by the seeded growth method. Gold NRs after exposure to Nd:YAG laser were characterized using absorption spectra and transmission electron microscope images. The tissue-like phantom containing a glass capillary with blood was prepared and exposed to Nd:YAG laser to investigate the laser energy density and pulse number required for blood coagulation before and after the addition of gold NRs in blood. The results show that the millisecond Nd:YAG laser irradiation does not result in the shape change of gold NRs. After injection of gold NRs into the bloodstream (4.60 mg/kg), the absorbance of blood at 1064 nm increased 3.9 times. The threshold energy density for the treatment of PWS decreased by 33% (from 30 to 20 J/cm(2)). Our findings provide an experimental guide for choosing laser parameters and gold NRs concentration for the treatment of deeper and larger PWS with the assistance of PEG-modified gold NRs in vivo in the future.

Keyword :

Tissue-like phantom Photothermolysis Gold nanorods Laser dermatology Nd:YAG laser Port-wine stain

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GB/T 7714 Xing, Linzhuang , Chen, Bin , Li, Dong et al. Nd:YAG laser-induced morphology change and photothermal conversion of gold nanorods with potential application in the treatment of port-wine stain [J]. | LASERS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE , 2017 , 32 (3) : 629-640 .
MLA Xing, Linzhuang et al. "Nd:YAG laser-induced morphology change and photothermal conversion of gold nanorods with potential application in the treatment of port-wine stain" . | LASERS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE 32 . 3 (2017) : 629-640 .
APA Xing, Linzhuang , Chen, Bin , Li, Dong , Ma, Jun , Wu, Wenjuan , Wang, Guoxiang . Nd:YAG laser-induced morphology change and photothermal conversion of gold nanorods with potential application in the treatment of port-wine stain . | LASERS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE , 2017 , 32 (3) , 629-640 .
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