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Prices, availability and affordability of insulin products: a cross-sectional survey in Shaanxi Province, western China. PubMed Scopus SCIE
期刊论文 | 2019 , 24 (1) , 43-52 | Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH
WoS CC Cited Count: 1
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To evaluate price, availability and affordability of insulin products in Shaanxi Province, western China.We used a simplified and adapted WHO/Health Action International method to obtain the availability and prices of insulin products and 5 oral anti-diabetic medicines as comparators in public general hospitals and private retail outlets. In addition, we investigated the price components of 8 selected insulin products by tracing the supply chain.All three kinds of insulin products, prandial, basal and premixed insulin, are 100% available in public hospitals, and have fairly high availability in the private sector (62.5% to 68.8%). The prices of most insulin products were higher than international reference prices in both sectors (ranging from 0.95 times to 2.33 times). All insulin products were unaffordable as they would cost 3.5 to 17.1 days' wage of the lowest-paid government workers in Shaanxi. The manufacturer's markup (selling price), which comprised more than 60% of the final price of all insulin products surveyed, was the largest price component.Although availability of insulin products was high in public general hospitals and private retail pharmacies, their high price made them unaffordable to diabetes patients, especially low-income patients. The government should increase insurance compensation for those who need these life-saving medicines or decrease the cost of insulin products through negotiation with suppliers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

price components insulin China affordability availability

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GB/T 7714 Li Zongjie , Feng Qinqin , Kabba John Alimamy et al. Prices, availability and affordability of insulin products: a cross-sectional survey in Shaanxi Province, western China. [J]. | Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH , 2019 , 24 (1) : 43-52 .
MLA Li Zongjie et al. "Prices, availability and affordability of insulin products: a cross-sectional survey in Shaanxi Province, western China." . | Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH 24 . 1 (2019) : 43-52 .
APA Li Zongjie , Feng Qinqin , Kabba John Alimamy , Yang Caijun , Chang Jie , Jiang Minghuan et al. Prices, availability and affordability of insulin products: a cross-sectional survey in Shaanxi Province, western China. . | Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH , 2019 , 24 (1) , 43-52 .
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Patients' Anticipation for the Pharmacies of Rural Communities: A Qualitative Study from Pakistan. PubMed SSCI SCIE
期刊论文 | 2019 , 16 (1) | International journal of environmental research and public health
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<i>Background</i>: Community pharmacies are an integrated part of healthcare systems worldwide. In low and middle income countries like Pakistan, the paradigm of pharmacy practice is shifting from dispensing medicines to clinical activities. There are disparities in these practices according to location. Pharmacies in urban localities are better than those in rural areas. This qualitative study was conducted to explore patients' expectations and current practices in rural pharmacies. <i>Methods</i>: A cohort of adult pharmacy visitors (aged > 18 years) that reside in rural community was selected. Consenting participants were recruited by purposive sampling technique until thematic saturation level was achieved. A total of 34 patients were interviewed. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a semi structured interview guide. All the data were transcribed and used to originate the themes. <i>Results</i>: On analysis, a total of 20 themes were obtained. Sixteen themes pronounced the current provided services. Four themes provided some suggestions for the development of better pharmacies. On call services to provide medicines, limited free extended pharmacy services, interest in patients' wellbeing, appropriate referral, vaccination, free medical camp, medical services at home, first aid, and counseling were appreciated by patients. Patients stated that medicines are inappropriately stored in unhygienic conditions, prices of medicines are comparatively high, and medicines are substandard. Unavailability of medicines, inept dispensing, limited staffing with poor knowledge, limited working hours, and quackery promotion are challenges in rural pharmacy practice. Patients say that non marginal pricing, informative services, new legislation, and proper vigilance by officials can improve the pharmacy services in rural communities. <i>Conclusions</i>: Patients alleged that rural pharmacies perform deprived practices. To improve service, new legislation and the proper implementation of existing law is needed.

Keyword :

patients’ anticipation Pakistan rural population community pharmacies qualitative study

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GB/T 7714 Aziz Muhammad Majid , Jiang Minghuan , Masood Imran et al. Patients' Anticipation for the Pharmacies of Rural Communities: A Qualitative Study from Pakistan. [J]. | International journal of environmental research and public health , 2019 , 16 (1) .
MLA Aziz Muhammad Majid et al. "Patients' Anticipation for the Pharmacies of Rural Communities: A Qualitative Study from Pakistan." . | International journal of environmental research and public health 16 . 1 (2019) .
APA Aziz Muhammad Majid , Jiang Minghuan , Masood Imran , Chang Jie , Shan Zhu , Raza Muhammad Ali et al. Patients' Anticipation for the Pharmacies of Rural Communities: A Qualitative Study from Pakistan. . | International journal of environmental research and public health , 2019 , 16 (1) .
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An assessment of counseling quality provided by community pharmacies to type 2 diabetic adult patients for oral therapy: a simulated patient study from Pakistan. PubMed
期刊论文 | 2019 | Endocrine journal
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This study was conducted to assess quality of counseling provided to type 2 diabetic patients. For this cross-sectional study, a simulated patient method was applied in 562 selected community pharmacies of Punjab, Pakistan. A scenario for the metformin oral therapy was developed that illustrates direct counseling for adult diabetic patients. Counseling and communication skills were also assessed. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used for analysis. Only 29.4% of simulated patients received medication counseling directly; 47.6% received it on request. About 32.8% of clients were referred to a physician without counseling. The most frequently provided information was dietary instruction (94.8%) and dose of therapy (84.5%). Only one quarter (25.3%) of simulated patients were asked about disease duration and similar rate (25.0%) was found for discussions of special warnings. The side effects, drug storage, drug-drug interactions and duration of therapy were ignored. Minimal information was provided about other medication during therapy (0.2%) and effect of medicine withdrawal (2.7%). About 59.5% simulated patients were instructed for compliance to medication. Counseling to type 2 diabetic patients in Pakistani community pharmacies is not very satisfactory. Pharmacies' staff have little focus on counseling. Professional training of staff could improve counseling and communication skills.

Keyword :

Counseling Metformin Type 2 diabetic patients Community pharmacies Pakistan

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GB/T 7714 Aziz Muhammad Majid , Yang Shimin , Masood Imran et al. An assessment of counseling quality provided by community pharmacies to type 2 diabetic adult patients for oral therapy: a simulated patient study from Pakistan. [J]. | Endocrine journal , 2019 .
MLA Aziz Muhammad Majid et al. "An assessment of counseling quality provided by community pharmacies to type 2 diabetic adult patients for oral therapy: a simulated patient study from Pakistan." . | Endocrine journal (2019) .
APA Aziz Muhammad Majid , Yang Shimin , Masood Imran , Zhu Shan , Raza Muhammad Ali , Ji Wenjing et al. An assessment of counseling quality provided by community pharmacies to type 2 diabetic adult patients for oral therapy: a simulated patient study from Pakistan. . | Endocrine journal , 2019 .
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A School-Based Educational Intervention for School-Aged Children and Caregivers about Rational Use of Antibiotics in Urban Areas of Shaanxi Province: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Research SSCI SCIE Scopus PubMed
期刊论文 | 2018 , 15 (9) | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
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(1) Background: Antibiotic resistance is an imperative public health issue globally. Major factors that are resulting in this trend are the irrational and excessive use of antibiotics. Children account for a greater population of antibiotics use, therefore, an educational intervention on the rational use of antibiotics for children and caregivers will be beneficial. (2) Methods: A randomized controlled and parallel group study of fifth grade children and their caregivers will be evaluated in four primary schools in Baoji and Weinan of the Shaanxi Province. Two primary schools will be randomly selected for the educational intervention and two schools will serve as a control group. In the intervention arm, educational interventions will be conducted among caregivers and their children. The intervention measures include interactive training sessions, booklets, and printed or electronic educational materials that will be given to the caregivers or the school-aged children. In the control arm, no interventions will be implemented. Baseline data collected from June, 2018 and the intervention will last for three months. Knowledge-Attitude-Practice (KAP) questionnaires will be used to evaluate the caregivers' knowledge, their attitude, and their practice. Knowledge-Retention questionnaires will be used to assess the children's knowledge about microbes, antibiotics, and hygiene. (3) Discussion: This study is a unique comprehensive intervention targeting both children and their caregivers. We hypothesize a decrease in the irrational use of antibiotics among the studied population. Hence, this result would provide evidence for policy makers and educational departments for the implementation of similar interventions on the rational use of antibiotics.

Keyword :

antibiotics resistance caregivers educational intervention upper respiratory tract infection children rational antibiotic use

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GB/T 7714 Zhang, Yu , Kabba, John , Chang, Jie et al. A School-Based Educational Intervention for School-Aged Children and Caregivers about Rational Use of Antibiotics in Urban Areas of Shaanxi Province: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Research [J]. | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH , 2018 , 15 (9) .
MLA Zhang, Yu et al. "A School-Based Educational Intervention for School-Aged Children and Caregivers about Rational Use of Antibiotics in Urban Areas of Shaanxi Province: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Research" . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH 15 . 9 (2018) .
APA Zhang, Yu , Kabba, John , Chang, Jie , Ji, Wenjing , Zhu, Shan , Yu, Jiale et al. A School-Based Educational Intervention for School-Aged Children and Caregivers about Rational Use of Antibiotics in Urban Areas of Shaanxi Province: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Research . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH , 2018 , 15 (9) .
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Disparities in out-of-pocket inpatient expenditures in rural Shaanxi Province, western China from 2011 to 2014: a time series analysis SSCI SCIE PubMed Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 23 (6) , 661-667 | TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH
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ObjectiveTo investigate the long-term trend of disparity of monthly average out-of-pocket inpatient expenditures (OOP) between areas with different developing levels since the new healthcare reform. MethodsTime series regression was used to assess the trend of disparities of OOP and monthly average inpatient expenditures (AIE) between areas with different developing levels in rural Shaanxi Province, western China. The data of OOP and AIE in primary health institutions, secondary hospitals, tertiary hospitals and also all levels of the hospital were analysed separately covering the period 2011 through to 2014. ResultsThe disparity of AIE at all levels of hospitals was increasing (coefficient=0.003, P=0.029), and only the disparity of AIE in secondary hospitals was statistical significant (coefficient=0.003, P=0.012) when separately considering different levels of the hospital. The disparity of OOP in all levels of the hospital was increasing (coefficient=0.007, P=0.001), and the OOP in primary hospitals contributed most of the disparity (coefficient=0.019, P=0.000), followed by OOP in secondary (coefficient=0.008, P=0.003) and tertiary hospitals (coefficient=0.004, P=0.091). ConclusionsA statistically significant absolute increase in the trend of disparities of OOP and AIE at all levels of hospital was detected after the new healthcare reform in Shaanxi Province, western China. The increase rate of disparity of OOP was bigger than that of AIE. A modified health insurance plan should be proposed to guarantee equity in the future. Abstract ObjectifsEtudier la tendance a long terme de la disparite dans les depenses directes de la poche (DDP) moyennes mensuelles des patients hospitalises entre les regions ayant des niveaux de developpement differents depuis la nouvelle reforme des soins de sante. MethodesLa regression des series chronologiques a ete utilisee pour evaluer la tendance des disparites des DDP et des depenses moyennes mensuelles des patients hospitalises (DMMPH) entre les regions ayant differents niveaux de developpement dans la province rurale du Shaanxi, dans l'ouest de la Chine. Les donnees des DDP et des DMMPH dans les etablissements de sante primaires, les hopitaux secondaires, les hopitaux tertiaires et a tous les niveaux de l'hopital ont ete analysees separement pour la periode allant de 2011 a 2014. ResultatsLa disparite des DMMPH a tous les niveaux des hopitaux augmentait (coefficient = 0,003; p = 0,029) et seule la disparite des DMMPH dans les hopitaux secondaires etait statistiquement significative (coefficient = 0,003; p = 0,012) lorsqu'on considerait separement differents niveaux de l'hopital. La disparite des DDP a tous les niveaux de l'hopital augmentait (coefficient = 0,007; P = 0.001) et les DDP dans les hopitaux primaires contribuait a la plus grande partie de la disparite (coefficient = 0,019; P = 0,000), suivie des DDP dans les hopitaux secondaires (coefficient = 0,008; p = 0,003) et tertiaires (coefficient = 0,004; p = 0,091). ConclusionsUne augmentation absolue statistiquement significative de la tendance des disparites entre les DDP et les DMMPH a tous les niveaux de l'hopital a ete detectee apres la nouvelle reforme des soins de sante dans la province du Shaanxi, dans l'ouest de la Chine. L'augmentation du taux de disparite des DDP etait plus importante que celle des DMMPH. Un schema d'assurance maladie modifie devrait etre propose pour garantir l'equite a l'avenir.

Keyword :

disparity out-of-pocket expenditures inpatient expenditure health insurance

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GB/T 7714 Yang, Caijun , Cai, Wenfang , Li, Zongjie et al. Disparities in out-of-pocket inpatient expenditures in rural Shaanxi Province, western China from 2011 to 2014: a time series analysis [J]. | TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH , 2018 , 23 (6) : 661-667 .
MLA Yang, Caijun et al. "Disparities in out-of-pocket inpatient expenditures in rural Shaanxi Province, western China from 2011 to 2014: a time series analysis" . | TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH 23 . 6 (2018) : 661-667 .
APA Yang, Caijun , Cai, Wenfang , Li, Zongjie , Fang, Yu . Disparities in out-of-pocket inpatient expenditures in rural Shaanxi Province, western China from 2011 to 2014: a time series analysis . | TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH , 2018 , 23 (6) , 661-667 .
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陕西省医疗机构制剂现状与对策分析
期刊论文 | 2018 , (1) , 76-81 | 中国药事
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目的:摸清陕西省医疗机构制剂现状和底数,明晰面临的机遇与挑战,提出有针对性的对策和建议,促进医疗机构制剂健康、可持续发展.方法:对2015年底全省换证的医疗机构制剂进行现状分析,探索制约医院制剂发展的主要因素,提出新医改背景下陕西省医院制剂可持续发展的策略及建议.结果:2015年底陕西省医疗机构制剂换证较上次(2010年)有所减少,分布相对集中,制剂人员资质水平较高,但硬件设施相对落后;在配品种剂型覆盖较广,其中内服制剂以非标准制剂为主,外用制剂以标准制剂为主;近年来,制剂产量呈相对平稳略有提高的趋势.结论:为确保医疗机构制剂的良性发展,需要进一步加强医疗机构制剂的监管及督导力度,努力提升其经济价值,适当扩大使用范围,以过硬的质量标准保证临床用药安全有效.

Keyword :

人员资质 品种 厂房面积 固定资产 医疗机构制剂 年生产总值

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GB/T 7714 孙凯英 , 方宇 , 彭莉蓉 et al. 陕西省医疗机构制剂现状与对策分析 [J]. | 中国药事 , 2018 , (1) : 76-81 .
MLA 孙凯英 et al. "陕西省医疗机构制剂现状与对策分析" . | 中国药事 1 (2018) : 76-81 .
APA 孙凯英 , 方宇 , 彭莉蓉 , 王晶晶 . 陕西省医疗机构制剂现状与对策分析 . | 中国药事 , 2018 , (1) , 76-81 .
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西安市家长对儿童疫苗的接种态度与迟疑情况调查
期刊论文 | 2018 , (1) , 136-141 | 中国药事
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目的:了解城市儿童家长对儿童接种疫苗的态度,测量其迟疑情况,发现预防接种存在的问题.方法:采用多水平抽样,2016年11月在<em>西安</em>市6个城区的每个区内抽取一个社区进行调查,调查地点是社区卫生服务中心,共对455名儿童家长进行了调查.采用已开发并验证的量表(Parents Attitude of Children Vaccinate, PACV)为调查工具,对其进行修改使用.量表含3部分:(1)免疫行为;(2)疫苗安全性与有效性的信念;(3)整体态度与信念,共18个题目.同时,对18名家长进行了访谈.结果:455名家长中,15. 8%的家长PACV得分≥ 50.分别有69. 5%和的家长担心疫苗的副作用和安全性.43. 7%的家长表示不能完全信任接种医生;23. 7%的家长对儿童接种疫苗存在迟疑.结论:<em>西安</em>市相当一部分家长对于儿童接种疫苗态度迟疑,对儿童基础免疫和二类疫苗的接种产生了潜在威胁.迫切需要对儿童家长疫苗接种的态度加强引导,提升疫苗接种的监管水平,提高家长对预防接种的信任和接种安全的信心.

Keyword :

迟疑 家长态度 疫苗接种 信心

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GB/T 7714 朱珊 , 常捷 , 计文婧 et al. 西安市家长对儿童疫苗的接种态度与迟疑情况调查 [J]. | 中国药事 , 2018 , (1) : 136-141 .
MLA 朱珊 et al. "西安市家长对儿童疫苗的接种态度与迟疑情况调查" . | 中国药事 1 (2018) : 136-141 .
APA 朱珊 , 常捷 , 计文婧 , 余家乐 , 张愉 , 杨世民 et al. 西安市家长对儿童疫苗的接种态度与迟疑情况调查 . | 中国药事 , 2018 , (1) , 136-141 .
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社区药房药师抗生素耐药认知与不凭处方调配抗生素行为调查
期刊论文 | 2018 , (1) , 117-123 | 中国药事
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目的:评估社区药房药师抗生素耐药认知与不凭处方调配抗生素行为,分析二者之间的关系.方法:于2016年对<em>西安</em>市社区药房药师开展问卷调查,使用视觉模拟量尺,测量受访药师对抗生素耐药的认知,自报不凭处方调配抗生素行为,应答率为77. 3%(99/128).对数据进行描述,检验不同行为组间认识的差异性.结果:多数受访药师对抗生素耐药具有基本认知,74. 8%(74/99)的被调查者报告了不凭处方调配抗生素的行为;未发现抗生素耐药认知与不凭处方调配抗生素行为之间的显著性关系.结论:社区药房药师不规范的抗生素调配行为比较普遍.仅通过强化认知水平来降低不凭处方的调配行为难以取得良好效果.管理药师群体和公众抗生素用药习惯,治理社区药房不规范药品销售行为,可能是更好的策略.

Keyword :

用药习惯 抗生素耐药认知 抗生素 社区药房 药师 调配行为

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GB/T 7714 常捷 , 马少康 , 朱珊 et al. 社区药房药师抗生素耐药认知与不凭处方调配抗生素行为调查 [J]. | 中国药事 , 2018 , (1) : 117-123 .
MLA 常捷 et al. "社区药房药师抗生素耐药认知与不凭处方调配抗生素行为调查" . | 中国药事 1 (2018) : 117-123 .
APA 常捷 , 马少康 , 朱珊 , 余家乐 , 张愉 , 计文婧 et al. 社区药房药师抗生素耐药认知与不凭处方调配抗生素行为调查 . | 中国药事 , 2018 , (1) , 117-123 .
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基于供需双方的抗生素合理使用干预研究综述
期刊论文 | 2018 , (1) , 15-22 | 中国药事
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目的:利用文献系统评价的方法,总结抗生素不合理使用现状、原因和影响,从国际经验与国内现状着手,系统研究发达国家、发展中国家或地区针对呼吸道感染类疾病抗生素滥用的干预模式,提出适合我国国情的干预模式,减少抗生素滥用.方法:检索词为:"抗生素" "抗菌药物" "干预" "管理" "呼吸道感染",检索中国知网、万方、PubMed数据库,收集国内外有关呼吸道感染类相关抗生素合理使用干预方面的研究文献,检索年限从2000年1月至2017年5月.根据文献纳入与排除标准,由研究者独立进行文献筛选.结果:本研究共纳入中文文献13篇,英文文献10篇.国内外针对呼吸道感染相关的抗生素合理使用干预策略、干预效果评估指标及研究结果等方面皆存在差异.结论:针对呼吸道感染的抗生素干预研究,对促进抗生素合理使用具有实际意义.建议将一些有效的干预措施纳入政策予以实施;国内外研究者应相互学习借鉴,使该研究能够更加科学、合理、深入.

Keyword :

滥用情况 干预效果评估指标 合理使用 抗生素 呼吸道感染 干预策略

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GB/T 7714 张愉 , 余家乐 , 常捷 et al. 基于供需双方的抗生素合理使用干预研究综述 [J]. | 中国药事 , 2018 , (1) : 15-22 .
MLA 张愉 et al. "基于供需双方的抗生素合理使用干预研究综述" . | 中国药事 1 (2018) : 15-22 .
APA 张愉 , 余家乐 , 常捷 , 计文婧 , 朱珊 , 杨世民 et al. 基于供需双方的抗生素合理使用干预研究综述 . | 中国药事 , 2018 , (1) , 15-22 .
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某三甲医院实施品管圈活动前后1200例清洁手术抗菌药物使用情况分析
期刊论文 | 2018 , (1) , 142-149 | 中国药事
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目的:分析商洛市中心医院在实施品管圈活动前后围手术期抗菌药物的应用情况,探讨品管圈活动在围手术期预防应用抗菌药物管理中的效果,促进合理用药.方法:随机抽取商洛市中心医院实施品管圈活动前(2015年6-12月)、实施品管圈活动后(2016年6-12月)各600份有效清洁手术病历,运用品管圈方法,对围手术期预防用药过程中出现的不合理现象进行统计分析,制定相应的防范措施,分析品管圈活动的实施效果.结果:通过开展品管圈活动,Ⅰ类切口抗菌药物预防使用率由67. 3%下降到36. 8%;给药时机合理率由79. 7%提高到96. 5%;术后使用疗程合理率由43. 6%提高到75. 3%;抗菌药物品种选择合理率由57. 2%提高到89. 2%.冠状动脉造影术及支架植入术预防用药率由100%降低到0%.结论:实施品管圈活动,明显提高了我院围手术期抗菌药物合理使用率,对促进医院安全、有效、经济及合理地使用抗菌药物起到了积极的推动作用.

Keyword :

围手术期 品管圈 Ⅰ类切口手术 抗菌药物 合理用药

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GB/T 7714 陈伟 , 方宇 . 某三甲医院实施品管圈活动前后1200例清洁手术抗菌药物使用情况分析 [J]. | 中国药事 , 2018 , (1) : 142-149 .
MLA 陈伟 et al. "某三甲医院实施品管圈活动前后1200例清洁手术抗菌药物使用情况分析" . | 中国药事 1 (2018) : 142-149 .
APA 陈伟 , 方宇 . 某三甲医院实施品管圈活动前后1200例清洁手术抗菌药物使用情况分析 . | 中国药事 , 2018 , (1) , 142-149 .
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