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孕妇对B族链球菌疫苗的态度和接种意向研究
期刊论文 | 2021 , 35 (5) , 586-594 | 中国药事
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目的:调查孕妇对B族链球菌(GBS)疫苗的态度与接种意向,为针对性地提高GBS疫苗接种,最终控制GBS感染提供参考.方法:选择北京、广州、长沙、西安和唐山5所城市的5个三级医院的孕妇进行横断面问卷调查,内容主要围绕孕妇对GBS感染的认知和对GBS疫苗的态度.调查问卷在健康信念模型和预调查的基础上编制完成,调查对象通过微信扫描二维码获得问卷题目并回答,数据分析主要使用描述性统计方法进行.结果:共932人(86.0%)完成了调查.大多数孕妇(82.8%)担心GBS可以从母亲传染给婴儿.对一种新疫苗的安全性和有效性存在担忧的调查对象分别高达89.9%和86.5%.如果有可用的GBS疫苗,61.6%的调查对象表示"可能"或"一定"选择接种.超过90%的孕妇表示会遵从医生的建议;信念是影响选择是否接种的主要因素.结论:参与本研究的调查对象对新疫苗的安全性和有效性存在一定顾虑,但仍有一半以上表示会选择接种GBS疫苗.此外,信念和医疗保健人员的建议在疫苗接种决策中具有重要的引导作用,因此,制定包括相关专业人员参与的健康教育计划非常必要.

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GB/T 7714 计文婧 , 蒋华林 , 叶丹 et al. 孕妇对B族链球菌疫苗的态度和接种意向研究 [J]. | 中国药事 , 2021 , 35 (5) : 586-594 .
MLA 计文婧 et al. "孕妇对B族链球菌疫苗的态度和接种意向研究" . | 中国药事 35 . 5 (2021) : 586-594 .
APA 计文婧 , 蒋华林 , 叶丹 , 刘海英 , 王卫东 , 高春燕 et al. 孕妇对B族链球菌疫苗的态度和接种意向研究 . | 中国药事 , 2021 , 35 (5) , 586-594 .
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基于格林模式的大学生抗菌药物自我药疗行为调查研究
期刊论文 | 2021 , 30 (15) , 4-8 | 中国药业
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目的 为抗菌药物的科普传播和健康教育提供参考.方法 基于格林模式的倾向因素、促成因素、强化因素,构建使用抗菌药物自我药疗的行为方式及内外部环境行为模型.选择陕西省某综合性大学2020年11月至12月的1~4年级非医学类大学本科在读学生730名.开展问卷调查,按是否发生过自我药疗行为分为无自我药疗行为组和有自我药疗行为组.对有无自我药疗行为的影响因素进行单因素分析及多因素二元Logistics回归分析,并提出建议.结果 该校大学生2020年5月至12月的抗菌药物自我药疗发生率为38.36%(280/730).无自我药疗行为组的抗菌药物态度得分、认知与态度得分均显著高于有自我药疗行为组(P<0.05).在药店购药时不会被要求出具处方是自我药疗行为有显著意义的促成因素(P<0.01),在宿舍或家中常备抗菌药物、服用抗菌药物前通常会阅读药品说明书是自我药疗行为有显著意义的强化因素(P<0.01).Logistic回归分析结果显示,认知与态度得分越低,越倾向于发生自我药疗行为(OR=0.948,P=0.038);宿舍或家中常备抗菌药物是自我药疗行为的强化因素(OR=1.579,P=0.004);相对于药店购买抗菌药物时须携带处方,不要求出具处方是自我药疗行为的促成因素(OR=2.091,P=0.002).结论 大学生抗菌药物自我药疗行为的发生是多因素共同作用的结果,应提高与改善其对抗菌药物的认知与态度,规范抗菌药物获取途径,加强对自我药疗行为的干预与引导,以降低自我药疗风险.

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GB/T 7714 邹雅敏 , 毛静 , 林燕 et al. 基于格林模式的大学生抗菌药物自我药疗行为调查研究 [J]. | 中国药业 , 2021 , 30 (15) : 4-8 .
MLA 邹雅敏 et al. "基于格林模式的大学生抗菌药物自我药疗行为调查研究" . | 中国药业 30 . 15 (2021) : 4-8 .
APA 邹雅敏 , 毛静 , 林燕 , 方宇 , 周文旭 . 基于格林模式的大学生抗菌药物自我药疗行为调查研究 . | 中国药业 , 2021 , 30 (15) , 4-8 .
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Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Northwest China: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Perceptions, Involvement, and Perceived Barriers Among Hospital Pharmacists SCIE PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 , 12 | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY
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Background: Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) is a key prevention strategy in addressing the global concern of increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Pharmacists are one of the integral members of AMS hospital teams around the world. Toward reducing AMR, a major strategy in China is to improve the capacity and participation of pharmacists in the AMS framework. However, little is known about how hospital pharmacists perceive their position and participation in AMS work, and the barriers to this work in China, especially in the Northwest region. Methods: Region this work describes a cross-sectional, anonymous, online survey study. Hospital pharmacists from five provinces/autonomous regions in northwest China were invited to participate in June and July 2020. Participants completed the survey by using WeChat, a popular social application in China. We purposefully distributed the questionnaire link and QR code to hospital pharmacists through the hospital antimicrobial resistance surveillance network, hospital antimicrobial consumption surveillance network, provincial and city pharmaceutical associations, and hospital pharmacist WeChat groups. Results: Out of 1032 respondents, 93.1% believed that AMS programs promote the judicial prescribing of antimicrobials, 95.5% strongly agreed that AMS could reduce the widespread use of antimicrobials, and 92.3% believed that AMS could improve medical services. Pharmacists were most likely to be involved in AMS through reviewing prescriptions of antimicrobials, intervening in inappropriate prescriptions, and providing feedback on antimicrobial prescriptions and medical orders. Barriers to participating in AMS included workload (59.5% of respondents), ineffective communication between pharmacists and doctors (57.7%), and inadequate knowledge of AMS (47.0%). Differences in responses were found between the five surveyed provinces. A significant association was found between median involvement scores and gender, age, education, level of superiority, experience, and type of hospital (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Pharmacists perceived that AMS programs are important, but that their involvement in related activities is limited in all provinces. Further studies and strategies should consider how to overcome the identified barriers to optimize the participation of pharmacists in AMS programs.

Keyword :

participation antimicrobial stewardship program hospital pharmacist strategy barriers antimicrobial resistance

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GB/T 7714 Ji, Wenjing , Hayat, Khezar , Ye, Dan et al. Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Northwest China: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Perceptions, Involvement, and Perceived Barriers Among Hospital Pharmacists [J]. | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY , 2021 , 12 .
MLA Ji, Wenjing et al. "Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Northwest China: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Perceptions, Involvement, and Perceived Barriers Among Hospital Pharmacists" . | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY 12 (2021) .
APA Ji, Wenjing , Hayat, Khezar , Ye, Dan , McIver, David J. , Yan, Kangkang , Kadirhaz, Muhtar et al. Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Northwest China: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Perceptions, Involvement, and Perceived Barriers Among Hospital Pharmacists . | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY , 2021 , 12 .
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Pilot drug and therapeutic committee programme in Sierra Leone: A descriptive mixed method study SCIE PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 | BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
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Aims Irrational medicine use is a global crisis, but incidences are proportionately higher in low- and middle-income countries such as Sierra Leone. This study explores the structure, functions and challenges of drug and therapeutics committees (DTCs), an intervention towards irrational medicine use recently piloted in Sierra Leone. Methods A 2-phase mixed-method study design was used in this study. Firstly, a cross-sectional survey was conducted on all pharmacists who have worked for at least 1 year in DTC-piloted hospitals, using an online questionnaire to assess DTCs' structure, indicators and challenges. In phase 2, all eligible pharmacists were invited for a semistructured online interview using the WhatsApp messaging application to get deeper insights into the key issues that emerged from the survey; however, only 5 of the 7 consented to participate. MS Excel 2019 and NVivo version 12 were respectively used for data management and analysis. Results A total of 6 survey responses and 5 interviews were included in the analysis. Participants are pharmacists from the 7 hospitals in Sierra Leone where DTC was piloted. Most DTCs are comprised of a minimum of 10 members consisting of both medical and hospital administrative staff. The main functions of DTCs are ensuring rational medicines use, monitoring and reporting adverse drug reactions. All 7 hospitals with established pilot DTCs have different subcommittees operating at varying functionality levels, ranging from effective to nonfunctional. The main challenges in DTC functions and maintenance are funding (n = 6), DTC decision implementation (n = 4), and unmotivated members (n = 4). Strategies suggested to improve DTCs at public hospitals and nationwide include resource allocation, monitoring and evaluating DTC functions and its members' capacity building. Conclusion DTCs present a compelling opportunity towards achieving rational medicines use at the hospital level in Sierra Leone. Nonetheless, the lack of funding and operational resources are significant limitations that must be noted by policymakers before expanding DTC programmes to other hospitals in Sierra Leone.

Keyword :

drug and therapeutics committee pharmacy and therapeutic committee irrational medicines use Sierra Leone antimicrobial hospital pharmacist

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GB/T 7714 Kabba, John Alimamy , Koroma, Mark Momoh , James, Peter Bai et al. Pilot drug and therapeutic committee programme in Sierra Leone: A descriptive mixed method study [J]. | BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY , 2021 .
MLA Kabba, John Alimamy et al. "Pilot drug and therapeutic committee programme in Sierra Leone: A descriptive mixed method study" . | BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY (2021) .
APA Kabba, John Alimamy , Koroma, Mark Momoh , James, Peter Bai , Kitchen, Chenai , Xu, Sen , Chang, Jie et al. Pilot drug and therapeutic committee programme in Sierra Leone: A descriptive mixed method study . | BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY , 2021 .
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Impact of COVID-19 on the Mental Health of Healthcare Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study From Pakistan SCIE SSCI PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 , 9 | FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH
WoS CC Cited Count: 1
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Background: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly increased the rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide due to its rapid transmission rate. The mental health status of individuals could have a negative impact attributed to this global situation. Therefore, this study was intended to explore the symptoms of depression and anxiety among healthcare workers (HCWs) of Pakistan during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken by administering a web-based questionnaire between May and June 2020. Two tools, including the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), were employed to measure anxiety and depression symptoms among HCWs. The data analyses were carried out using descriptive statistics, Man Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: Of 1094 HCWs who participated in this online survey, 742 (67.8%) were physicians, followed by nurses (n = 277, 25.3%) and pharmacists (n = 75, 6.9%). The survey respondents had a median depression and anxiety score of 5.00 (7.00-3.00) and 8.00 (11.00-5.00), respectively. A considerable number of HCWs (82.2%) utilized online psychological resources to deal with their psychological distress. Female HCWs, nurses, frontline HCWs, and HCWs aged 30-49 years were more likely to suffer from depression and anxiety (p < 0.05). Conclusion: During the recent ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, there is a mild level of symptoms of depression and anxiety among HCWs. Our findings call for urgent psychological interventions for vulnerable groups of Pakistani HCWs.

Keyword :

coronavirus depression mental health anxiety healthcare workers COVID-19

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GB/T 7714 Hayat, Khezar , Arshed, Muhammad , Fiaz, Iqra et al. Impact of COVID-19 on the Mental Health of Healthcare Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study From Pakistan [J]. | FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH , 2021 , 9 .
MLA Hayat, Khezar et al. "Impact of COVID-19 on the Mental Health of Healthcare Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study From Pakistan" . | FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH 9 (2021) .
APA Hayat, Khezar , Arshed, Muhammad , Fiaz, Iqra , Afreen, Urooj , Khan, Faiz Ullah , Khan, Tahir Abbas et al. Impact of COVID-19 on the Mental Health of Healthcare Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study From Pakistan . | FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH , 2021 , 9 .
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Impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status and associated factors among general population: a cross-sectional study from Pakistan SCIE SSCI PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 | PSYCHOLOGY HEALTH & MEDICINE
WoS CC Cited Count: 5
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The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has significantly affected the mental health of people globally. This study aimed to investigate the mental health status and associated factors among residents of Pakistan. An online questionnaire survey was conducted from April 3 to May 7, 2020, using convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Data regarding demographics, physical health status and contact history during the last 2 weeks were collected. Furthermore, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scales (DASS-21) were utilized to measure the mental health of the participants. The analyses included descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Of the 1663 participants who completed this survey, 1598 met the inclusion criteria. The results revealed mild to moderate depression among 390 participants (24.4%), mild to moderate anxiety among 490 participants (30.7%) and mild to moderate stress among 52 participants (3.3%). A majority of the participants rated their health as good (n = 751, 47.0%). Moreover, students reported significantly higher scores on depression (B = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.71-1.88; p < 0.05), anxiety (B = 0.56, 95% CI = -0.06 to 1.18; p < 0.05) and stress (B = 0.56, 95% CI = -0.12 to 1.23; p < 0.05). Physical symptoms, including fever, cough and myalgia, and contact history in the last 14 days reported significant associations with depression, anxiety and stress (p < 0.05). The mental health status of the people was noted to be affected during the COVID-19 outbreak. Assessment of several factors with significant associations with depression, anxiety and stress may aid in developing psychological interventions for vulnerable groups.

Keyword :

stress COVID-19 Pakistan mental health depression DASS-21

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GB/T 7714 Hayat, Khezar , Haq, Muhammad , Wang, Weihua et al. Impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status and associated factors among general population: a cross-sectional study from Pakistan [J]. | PSYCHOLOGY HEALTH & MEDICINE , 2021 .
MLA Hayat, Khezar et al. "Impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status and associated factors among general population: a cross-sectional study from Pakistan" . | PSYCHOLOGY HEALTH & MEDICINE (2021) .
APA Hayat, Khezar , Haq, Muhammad , Wang, Weihua , Khan, Faiz Ullah , Rehman, Anees ur , Rasool, Muhammad et al. Impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status and associated factors among general population: a cross-sectional study from Pakistan . | PSYCHOLOGY HEALTH & MEDICINE , 2021 .
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Impact of video-led educational intervention on the uptake of influenza vaccine among adults aged 60years and above in China: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial SCIE PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 , 21 (1) | BMC PUBLIC HEALTH
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BackgroundInfluenza is a global health threat to older adults, and the influenza vaccine is the most effective approach to prevent influenza infection. However, influenza vaccination coverage among Chinese older adults is far less than in developed countries such as the United States (4.0% vs. 64.9%). This study aims to increase influenza vaccination coverage in Chinese adults >= 60years using a video-led educational intervention conducted by medical students.MethodsA cluster randomized controlled trial will be conducted in 4 districts of Xi'an city, Shaanxi Province, China, using a stratified sampling approach. Adults aged >= 60years will be recruited from 8 community hospitals. A self-administered questionnaire of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) will be employed to record the KAP score. During the 6-month interventional period, participants in the intervention group will receive educational videos focused on influenza and influenza vaccination, coupled with a group discussion conducted by the medical students. For those in the control group, no intervention will be provided. The outcomes measured in both groups will be the influenza vaccination coverage and the KAP scores of all participants.DiscussionMedical students are more likely to educate older adults about scientific knowledge of influenza and its vaccine compared to clinical practitioners, who, most of the time, remain over-occupied due to the extensive workload. Video-led counseling and education could be a useful option to optimize older adults' understanding of influenza and influenza vaccination. This eventually could improve the uptake of influenza vaccine among Chinese older adults.Trial registrationChinese Clinical Trial Registry; ChiCTR2000034330; Registered 3rd July 2019.

Keyword :

Influenza vaccine Practice Intervention Knowledge Older adults

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GB/T 7714 Li, Pengchao , Hayat, Khezar , Jiang, Minghuan et al. Impact of video-led educational intervention on the uptake of influenza vaccine among adults aged 60years and above in China: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial [J]. | BMC PUBLIC HEALTH , 2021 , 21 (1) .
MLA Li, Pengchao et al. "Impact of video-led educational intervention on the uptake of influenza vaccine among adults aged 60years and above in China: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial" . | BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 21 . 1 (2021) .
APA Li, Pengchao , Hayat, Khezar , Jiang, Minghuan , Pu, Zhaojing , Yao, Xuelin , Zou, Yamin et al. Impact of video-led educational intervention on the uptake of influenza vaccine among adults aged 60years and above in China: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial . | BMC PUBLIC HEALTH , 2021 , 21 (1) .
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A Simulated Client Exploration of Nonprescription Dispensing of Antibiotics at Drugstores for Pediatric Acute Diarrhea and Upper Respiratory Infection in Lahore, Pakistan SCIE PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 , 14 , 1129-1140 | INFECTION AND DRUG RESISTANCE
WoS CC Cited Count: 2
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Introduction: The excessive consumption of antibiotics is a significant contributor to antimicrobial resistance, especially in children. Children are often advised antibiotics for viral infections. In developing countries, drugstores are a prime source of easy access to nonprescription antibiotics. Moreover, in Pakistan, their irrational use is an "everyday routine". The study, therefore, aimed to evaluate the dispensing of nonprescription antibiotics to children. Methods: Using pediatric acute diarrhea and acute upper respiratory infection as disease scenarios, a simulated client, cross-sectional study was conducted in Lahore, Pakistan, to explore the antibiotics' ease of availability at both categories of drugstores (pharmacies and medical stores) from November 1st, 2019 to January 31st, 2020. Chi-square (chi(2)) test was used to compare the differences in practices of different categorical variables. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to analyze the association of various factors with antibiotics dispensing. Results: Antibiotics were dispensed without prescription in 456 (59%) of 773 simulated visits out of which 425 (93.2%) were dispensed on the advice of the drugstore staff. A qualified pharmacist was available in only 164 (21.2%) cases. Of the 386 visits for acute diarrhea and 387 for acute upper respiratory infection, nonprescription antibiotic dispensing occurred in 259 (67.1%) and 197 (50.9%) visits, respectively. There were considerable differences (p-value <0.05) in the practices and antibiotics dispensing between each disease scenario presented. Moreover, antibiotics were less commonly dispensed at pharmacist-supervised drugstores compared to unsupervised ones. Conclusion: Overall, inappropriate dispensing practices were prevalent to a large extent at the drugstores, and antibiotics were effortlessly obtainable without prescription. The quality of the services provided, especially by the non-pharmacist staff, was also not satisfactory. Therefore, the Drug Regulating Authority of Pakistan must enforce strict implementation of drug laws at the drugstores without delay, especially in major cities to help curb the felonious use of antibiotics.

Keyword :

nonprescription simulated client drugstores community pharmacies antibiotics Pakistan

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GB/T 7714 Malik, Usman Rashid , Chang, Jie , Hashmi, Furqan et al. A Simulated Client Exploration of Nonprescription Dispensing of Antibiotics at Drugstores for Pediatric Acute Diarrhea and Upper Respiratory Infection in Lahore, Pakistan [J]. | INFECTION AND DRUG RESISTANCE , 2021 , 14 : 1129-1140 .
MLA Malik, Usman Rashid et al. "A Simulated Client Exploration of Nonprescription Dispensing of Antibiotics at Drugstores for Pediatric Acute Diarrhea and Upper Respiratory Infection in Lahore, Pakistan" . | INFECTION AND DRUG RESISTANCE 14 (2021) : 1129-1140 .
APA Malik, Usman Rashid , Chang, Jie , Hashmi, Furqan , Atif, Naveel , Basir, Hareem , Hayat, Khezar et al. A Simulated Client Exploration of Nonprescription Dispensing of Antibiotics at Drugstores for Pediatric Acute Diarrhea and Upper Respiratory Infection in Lahore, Pakistan . | INFECTION AND DRUG RESISTANCE , 2021 , 14 , 1129-1140 .
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Preference of influenza vaccination among the elderly population in Shaanxi province, China SCIE SSCI PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 , 17 (9) , 3119-3125 | HUMAN VACCINES & IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS
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The influenza vaccination uptake rate is low in China. In the current study, we aimed to explore the preferences of influenza vaccination among the Chinese elderly. A discrete choice experiment design was performed to assess their preferences toward five influenza vaccination attributes, including vaccine effectiveness, duration of protection, severe adverse effects, vaccination cost, and vaccination recommendation source. A total of 144 participants aged over 60 years from three cities of Shaanxi province in China were surveyed. A mixed logit model was employed to analyze the data. The elderly population were found to prefer influenza vaccination with a longer duration of protection, followed by lower severe adverse effects, higher vaccine effectiveness, and recommended by healthcare providers. The vaccination cost was the least important attribute. The most considerable marginal willingness to pay for vaccination (CNY220.90) and the highest vaccination choice probability (83.70%) occurred when the duration of protection extended from 3 to 12 months. The present study's findings would inform decision-makers on implementing appropriate interventions for the increase of influenza vaccination coverage among the elderly in China.

Keyword :

elderly influenza vaccination Discrete choice experiment preference willingness to pay

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GB/T 7714 Jiang, Minghuan , Li, Pengchao , Yao, Xuelin et al. Preference of influenza vaccination among the elderly population in Shaanxi province, China [J]. | HUMAN VACCINES & IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS , 2021 , 17 (9) : 3119-3125 .
MLA Jiang, Minghuan et al. "Preference of influenza vaccination among the elderly population in Shaanxi province, China" . | HUMAN VACCINES & IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS 17 . 9 (2021) : 3119-3125 .
APA Jiang, Minghuan , Li, Pengchao , Yao, Xuelin , Hayat, Khezar , Gong, Yilin , Zhu, Shan et al. Preference of influenza vaccination among the elderly population in Shaanxi province, China . | HUMAN VACCINES & IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS , 2021 , 17 (9) , 3119-3125 .
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Dispensing of Non-Prescribed Antibiotics from Community Pharmacies of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Pharmacy Staff's Opinion SCIE PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 , 10 (5) | ANTIBIOTICS-BASEL
WoS CC Cited Count: 2
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Community pharmacies are the main channel of antibiotics distribution. We aimed to analyze the dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics and knowledge of pharmacy staff. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Punjab, Pakistan between December 2017 and March 2018. A self-administered, structured, pretested, and validated bilingual questionnaire was used, and we used chi-square tests in the statistical analysis. A total of 573 (91.7%) pharmacy retailers responded to the survey; 44.0% were aged 31-40 years and all were men. Approximately 81.5% of participants declared that dispensing non-prescribed antibiotics is a common practice in community pharmacies, and 51.1% considered themselves to be authorized to dispense these drugs; 69.3% believed this a contributing factor to antimicrobial resistance. Most (79.1%) respondents believed that this practice promotes irrational antibiotics use, and half (52.2%) considered antimicrobial resistance to be a public health issue. Only 34.5% of respondents reported recommending that patients consult with a doctor prior to using antibiotics, and 61.8% perceived that their dispensing practices reduce patients' economic burden. Approximately 44.9% of pharmacy retailers stated that they have proper knowledge about antibiotics use. Nitroimidazole was the main class of antibiotic dispensed without a prescription. Dispensing of injectable and broad-spectrum antibiotics can be potential threat for infection cure. Poor knowledge of staff is associated with dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics. This inappropriate practice must be addressed immediately.

Keyword :

attitude dispensing practices non-prescribed community pharmacies antibiotics knowledge

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GB/T 7714 Majid Aziz, Muhammad , Haider, Fatima , Rasool, Muhammad Fawad et al. Dispensing of Non-Prescribed Antibiotics from Community Pharmacies of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Pharmacy Staff's Opinion [J]. | ANTIBIOTICS-BASEL , 2021 , 10 (5) .
MLA Majid Aziz, Muhammad et al. "Dispensing of Non-Prescribed Antibiotics from Community Pharmacies of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Pharmacy Staff's Opinion" . | ANTIBIOTICS-BASEL 10 . 5 (2021) .
APA Majid Aziz, Muhammad , Haider, Fatima , Rasool, Muhammad Fawad , Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid , Bahsir, Sadia , Li, Pengchao et al. Dispensing of Non-Prescribed Antibiotics from Community Pharmacies of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Pharmacy Staff's Opinion . | ANTIBIOTICS-BASEL , 2021 , 10 (5) .
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