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学者姓名:李长久

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< Page ,Total 39 >
Improving Erosion Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings by Elevating the Deposition Temperature Based on the Critical Bonding Temperature EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 27 (1-2) , 25-34 | JOURNAL OF THERMAL SPRAY TECHNOLOGY
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Abstract :

Interlamellar bonding within plasma-sprayed coatings is one of the most important factors dominating the properties and performance of coatings. The interface bonding between lamellae significantly influences the erosion behavior of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings. In this study, TiO2 and Al2O3 coatings with different microstructures were deposited at different deposition temperatures based on the critical bonding temperature concept. The erosion behavior of ceramic coatings was investigated. It was revealed that the coatings prepared at room temperature exhibit a typical lamellar structure with numerous unbonded interfaces, whereas the coatings deposited at the temperature above the critical bonding temperature present a dense structure with well-bonded interfaces. The erosion rate decreases sharply with the improvement of interlamellar bonding when the deposition temperature increases to the critical bonding temperature. In addition, the erosion mechanisms of ceramic coatings were examined. The unbonded interfaces in the conventional coatings act as pre-cracks accelerating the erosion of coatings. Thus, controlling interlamellar bonding formation based on the critical bonding temperature is an effective approach to improve the erosion resistance of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings.

Keyword :

ceramic coating critical bonding temperature interlamellar bonding erosion resistance plasma spray

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GB/T 7714 Yao, Shu-Wei , Yang, Guan-Jun , Li, Cheng-Xin et al. Improving Erosion Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings by Elevating the Deposition Temperature Based on the Critical Bonding Temperature [J]. | JOURNAL OF THERMAL SPRAY TECHNOLOGY , 2018 , 27 (1-2) : 25-34 .
MLA Yao, Shu-Wei et al. "Improving Erosion Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings by Elevating the Deposition Temperature Based on the Critical Bonding Temperature" . | JOURNAL OF THERMAL SPRAY TECHNOLOGY 27 . 1-2 (2018) : 25-34 .
APA Yao, Shu-Wei , Yang, Guan-Jun , Li, Cheng-Xin , Li, Chang-Jiu . Improving Erosion Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings by Elevating the Deposition Temperature Based on the Critical Bonding Temperature . | JOURNAL OF THERMAL SPRAY TECHNOLOGY , 2018 , 27 (1-2) , 25-34 .
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Optimization of In-Situ Shot-Peening-Assisted Cold Spraying Parameters for Full Corrosion Protection of Mg Alloy by Fully Dense Al-Based Alloy Coating EI CPCI-S SCIE Scopus
会议论文 | 2017 , 26 (1-2) , 173-183 | International Thermal Spray Conference (ISTC) | IF: 1.949
WoS CC Cited Count: 9
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Abstract :

Magnesium-based alloys have excellent physical and mechanical properties for a lot of applications. However, due to high chemical reactivity, magnesium and its alloys are highly susceptible to corrosion. In this study, Al6061 coating was deposited on AZ31B magnesium by cold spray with a commercial Al6061 powder blended with large-sized stainless steel particles (in-situ shot-peening particles) using nitrogen gas. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of the sprayed coating was investigated as a function of shot-peening particle content in the feedstock. It is found that by introducing the in-situ tamping effect using shot-peening (SP) particles, the plastic deformation of deposited particles is significantly enhanced, thereby resulting in a fully dense Al6061 coating. SEM observations reveal that no SP particle is deposited into Al6061 coating at the optimization spraying parameters. Porosity of the coating significantly decreases from 10.7 to 0.4% as the SP particle content increases from 20 to 60 vol.%. The electrochemical corrosion experiments reveal that this novel in-situ SP-assisted cold spraying is effective to deposit fully dense Al6061 coating through which aqueous solution is not permeable and thus can provide exceptional protection of the magnesium-based materials from corrosion.

Keyword :

in-situ shot-peening corrosion protection aluminum alloy coating cold spray microstructure magnesium alloy

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GB/T 7714 Wei, Ying-Kang , Luo, Xiao-Tao , Li, Cheng-Xin et al. Optimization of In-Situ Shot-Peening-Assisted Cold Spraying Parameters for Full Corrosion Protection of Mg Alloy by Fully Dense Al-Based Alloy Coating [C] . 2017 : 173-183 .
MLA Wei, Ying-Kang et al. "Optimization of In-Situ Shot-Peening-Assisted Cold Spraying Parameters for Full Corrosion Protection of Mg Alloy by Fully Dense Al-Based Alloy Coating" . (2017) : 173-183 .
APA Wei, Ying-Kang , Luo, Xiao-Tao , Li, Cheng-Xin , Li, Chang-Jiu . Optimization of In-Situ Shot-Peening-Assisted Cold Spraying Parameters for Full Corrosion Protection of Mg Alloy by Fully Dense Al-Based Alloy Coating . (2017) : 173-183 .
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Effect of Oxidation on the Bonding Formation of Plasma-Sprayed Stainless Steel Splats onto Stainless Steel Substrate EI CPCI-S SCIE Scopus
会议论文 | 2017 , 26 (1-2) , 47-59 | International Thermal Spray Conference (ISTC) | IF: 1.949
WoS CC Cited Count: 4
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Abstract :

Stainless steel splats were deposited on 304 stainless substrates with different thicknesses of oxide layer to examine the effect of substrate oxidation on splat morphology and splat-substrate interface bonding by inert low-pressure plasma spraying. The cross sections of splats showing the splat-substrate interface were prepared by focus ion beam (FIB). The splat morphology and splat-substrate interface bonding state were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The interface bonding was also examined by an electrolytic etching process. Results showed that with increasing oxide layer thickness and surface roughness, the morphology of splat changed from disk shape to splashed finger-like shape. The examination into the interface bonding by using FIB-prepared cross-sectional samples revealed that the splat interface bonding depended on the oxide roughness and composition. The interface bonding with a ratio of 44% was formed at the inner part of a splat on the pre-oxidized substrate when iron oxide presented on the surface, and the roughness of oxide scale was < 5 nm. When the pre-oxidizing temperature exceeded 800 A degrees C, the surface roughness increased to 14 nm and chromium oxide covered the pre-oxidized surface, resulting in no effective bonding forming at the whole interface. Thus, surface roughness and oxide composition have a significant influence on the splat interface bonding formation.

Keyword :

thermal spray splat morphology oxide layer substrate temperature interface bonding formation

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GB/T 7714 Wang, Jun , Li, Chang-Jiu , Yang, Guan-Jun et al. Effect of Oxidation on the Bonding Formation of Plasma-Sprayed Stainless Steel Splats onto Stainless Steel Substrate [C] . 2017 : 47-59 .
MLA Wang, Jun et al. "Effect of Oxidation on the Bonding Formation of Plasma-Sprayed Stainless Steel Splats onto Stainless Steel Substrate" . (2017) : 47-59 .
APA Wang, Jun , Li, Chang-Jiu , Yang, Guan-Jun , Li, Cheng-Xin . Effect of Oxidation on the Bonding Formation of Plasma-Sprayed Stainless Steel Splats onto Stainless Steel Substrate . (2017) : 47-59 .
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Dependency of deposition behavior, microstructure and properties of cold sprayed Cu on morphology and porosity of the powder EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 328 , 304-312 | SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY | IF: 2.906
WoS CC Cited Count: 1
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Abstract :

Effect of the Cu feedstock morphology and microstructure on cold spray deposition.behavior and coating microstructure was investigated in this study. Deposition efficiency, coating porosity, electrical conductivity and corrosion behavior of coatings sprayed with conventional gas atomized Cu (GA Cu) powder and electrolytic porous and dendritic Cu (E Cu) powder sprayed coating were comparatively studied. Correlation of the detailed pore structure with electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance were examined. It is found that, under the same conditions, E Cu powder shows a high deposition efficiency (DE) of 70.5% while GA Cu powder yields a low DE of only 34.4%. Although both the coatings have relatively low porosity of-0.5%, GA Cu coating presents a much higher in-plane electrical conductivity of 73% of IACS, but a poorer corrosion resistance than E Cu coating. Detailed pore structrue examination indicates that the numerous intra-splat interfaces arising from the inter-branch gaps in E Cu powder introduce extra contact electrical resistance to the E Cu coating and thus lead to low electrical conductivity. In the GA coating, the inter-particle pores connected by poorly bonded inter-particle boundaries provide fast pathway for corrosive medium and consequently result in a poor corrossion resistance. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

Particle characteristics Deposition efficiency Cold spray Porosity Corrosion behavior Electrical conductivity

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GB/T 7714 Li, Yu-Juan , Luo, Xiao-Tao , Li, Chang-Jiu . Dependency of deposition behavior, microstructure and properties of cold sprayed Cu on morphology and porosity of the powder [J]. | SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY , 2017 , 328 : 304-312 .
MLA Li, Yu-Juan et al. "Dependency of deposition behavior, microstructure and properties of cold sprayed Cu on morphology and porosity of the powder" . | SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY 328 (2017) : 304-312 .
APA Li, Yu-Juan , Luo, Xiao-Tao , Li, Chang-Jiu . Dependency of deposition behavior, microstructure and properties of cold sprayed Cu on morphology and porosity of the powder . | SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY , 2017 , 328 , 304-312 .
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Effect of Fe doping on the performance of suspension plasma-sprayed PrBa0.5Sr0.5Co2-xFexO5+delta cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 43 (15) , 11648-11655 | CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL | IF: 3.057
WoS CC Cited Count: 2
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Abstract :

PrBa0.5Sr0.5Co2-xFexO5+delta (PBSCF) (X = 0, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5) is investigated as cathode material for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Suspension plasma spraying is used as a low cost and large-scale manufacturing process to prepare PBSCF cathodes. Fe substitution effects on the crystal structure and electrochemical performance are characterized. All plasma-sprayed PBSCF cathodes exhibit a pure and stable cubic structure. The suspension plasma-sprayed PBSCF deposits show a porous and fine structure, and the microstructures are insensitive to Fe substitution. Subsequent to Fe doping, the polarization resistance of PBSCF cathodes rapidly decreases for increasing Fe substitution concentration from 0 to 0.4. Further increase of the Fe doping concentration increases the cathode polarization instead. At 600 and 700 degrees C, a 20% Fe-doped (x = 0.4) PBSCF cathode exhibits remarkably low area-specific polarization resistances (R-p) of 0.074 Omega cm(2) and 0.012 Omega cm(2), respectively. Moreover, the Rp of all cathodes remains almost identical after isothermal annealing at 600 degrees C for 300 h. Furthermore, the thermally-sprayed porous metal-supported cell assembled with the optimal PBSCF cathode shows excellent performance with peak power densities of 0.37, 0.8, and 1.35 W cm(-2) at 500, 600, and 700 degrees C, respectively.

Keyword :

Suspension plasma spraying Solid oxide fuel cells Double-perovskite cathode Fe-doping Electrochemical performance

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GB/T 7714 Zhang, Shan-Lin , Chen, Kuan , Zhang, Ai-Ping et al. Effect of Fe doping on the performance of suspension plasma-sprayed PrBa0.5Sr0.5Co2-xFexO5+delta cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells [J]. | CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL , 2017 , 43 (15) : 11648-11655 .
MLA Zhang, Shan-Lin et al. "Effect of Fe doping on the performance of suspension plasma-sprayed PrBa0.5Sr0.5Co2-xFexO5+delta cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells" . | CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL 43 . 15 (2017) : 11648-11655 .
APA Zhang, Shan-Lin , Chen, Kuan , Zhang, Ai-Ping , Li, Cheng-Xin , Li, Chang-Jiu . Effect of Fe doping on the performance of suspension plasma-sprayed PrBa0.5Sr0.5Co2-xFexO5+delta cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells . | CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL , 2017 , 43 (15) , 11648-11655 .
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Enhanced sintering behavior of LSGM electrolyte and its performance for solid oxide fuel cells deposited by vacuum cold spray EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 37 (15) , 4751-4761 | JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY | IF: 3.794
WoS CC Cited Count: 3
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Abstract :

How to obtain dense La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8 MB0.2O3 (LSGM) electrolyte at low sintering temperature (<1300 degrees C) is a challenge to improve solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) performance at intermediate operation temperature. In this study, a double-layer design method for vacuum cold spray (VCS) prepared-LSGM electrolyte assisted with two-step sintering at a low temperature was proposed. The sintering behavior of VCS deposited LSGM layers at 1200 degrees C was investigated. The LSGM layers became denser in most regions except the appearance of some cracks. Subsequently, the effect of a second LSGM layer on the sintered top layer was studied to block cracks. Results showed that the co-sintered layer with a thickness of approximately 5 mu m presented a maximum open circuit voltage of similar to 0.956 Vat 650 degrees C and a maximum power density of 592 mW/cm(2) at 750 degrees C. Result indicates that the sintering assisted VCS is a promising method to prepare the LSGM electrolyte applied in intermediate temperature SOFCs. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keyword :

LSGM electrolyte Low temperature sintering Vacuum cold spray Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)

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GB/T 7714 Wang, Li-Shuang , Li, Cheng-Xin , Li, Guang-Rong et al. Enhanced sintering behavior of LSGM electrolyte and its performance for solid oxide fuel cells deposited by vacuum cold spray [J]. | JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY , 2017 , 37 (15) : 4751-4761 .
MLA Wang, Li-Shuang et al. "Enhanced sintering behavior of LSGM electrolyte and its performance for solid oxide fuel cells deposited by vacuum cold spray" . | JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY 37 . 15 (2017) : 4751-4761 .
APA Wang, Li-Shuang , Li, Cheng-Xin , Li, Guang-Rong , Yang, Guan-Jun , Zhang, Shan-Lin , Li, Chang-Jiu . Enhanced sintering behavior of LSGM electrolyte and its performance for solid oxide fuel cells deposited by vacuum cold spray . | JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY , 2017 , 37 (15) , 4751-4761 .
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A comprehensive mechanism for the sintering of plasma-sprayed nanostructured thermal barrier coatings EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 43 (13) , 9600-9615 | CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL | IF: 3.057
WoS CC Cited Count: 4
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Abstract :

Nanostructured thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are being widely researched for their superior thermal barrier effect and strain compliance. However, the sintering occurs inevitably in nanostructured TBCs that comprise both nanozones and lamellar zones, although the mechanism of sintering in such bimodal coatings is not yet clear. This study investigates the changes in microstructure and properties of nanostructured TBCs during thermal exposure with the aim to reveal the sintering mechanism operative in these coatings. Results show that the sintering process occurs in two stages. It was found that in the initial shorter stage (similar to 0-10 h), the properties increased rapidly; moreover, this change was anisotropic. The main structural change was the significant healing of the intersplat pores through multiconnection. During the subsequent longer stage, the change in the properties was much smaller, where it was observed that the pores continued to heal, albeit at a much lower rate. Furthermore, the faster densification of the nanozones induced during sintering became significant, resulting in an opening at the interface between the nanozones and the lamellar zones. In brief, the pore healing at the lamellar zones affects the properties, especially in the initial stage. The presence of nanozones has a positive effect in that the performance degradation during the overall thermal exposure is slowed down. An understanding of this competing sintering mechanism would enable the structural tailoring of nanostructured TBCs in order to increase their thermal insulation and thermal cycling lifetime.

Keyword :

Sintering Plasma-spraying Thermal barrier coatings Nanostructured coatings Two-stage kinetics

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GB/T 7714 Li, Guang-Rong , Yang, Guan-Jun , Li, Cheng-Xin et al. A comprehensive mechanism for the sintering of plasma-sprayed nanostructured thermal barrier coatings [J]. | CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL , 2017 , 43 (13) : 9600-9615 .
MLA Li, Guang-Rong et al. "A comprehensive mechanism for the sintering of plasma-sprayed nanostructured thermal barrier coatings" . | CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL 43 . 13 (2017) : 9600-9615 .
APA Li, Guang-Rong , Yang, Guan-Jun , Li, Cheng-Xin , Li, Chang-Jiu . A comprehensive mechanism for the sintering of plasma-sprayed nanostructured thermal barrier coatings . | CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL , 2017 , 43 (13) , 9600-9615 .
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Strain-induced multiscale structural changes in lamellar thermal barrier coatings EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 43 (2) , 2252-2266 | CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL | IF: 3.057
WoS CC Cited Count: 9
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Abstract :

The thermal mismatch stress, as well as residual stress, in coating/substrate systems often leads to structural changes and subsequent coating debonding in the systems. This study focused on the changes induced in the microstructure and properties of lamellar yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings upon heating, with the aim of elucidating their starting microstructure prior to sintering. The results showed that the combined effect of the residual stress and the thermal mismatch stress results in scale-sensitive changes in the properties of the coatings. The macroscale properties changed significantly, while the microscale properties changed only slightly. Structural characterization revealed that a certain degree of expansion at the tips of both the intersplat pores and the intrasplat cracks occurs, contributing to the microscale structural changes observed in most regions. Moreover, a few mesoscale cracks covering several layers were also observed. A lamellar structural model was developed to correlate the multiscale structural changes observed with those in the properties. Finally, this study revealed that the actual starting structure of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings prior to sintering is different from that in the as-deposited state. This should aid in obtaining an in-depth understanding on the microstructural and properties evolution of the constrained coatings under actual service conditions.

Keyword :

Plasma spraying Mechanical properties Thermal barrier coatings CTE mismatch strain Multiscale structural changes

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GB/T 7714 Li, Guang-Rong , Yang, Guan-Jun , Li, Cheng-Xin et al. Strain-induced multiscale structural changes in lamellar thermal barrier coatings [J]. | CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL , 2017 , 43 (2) : 2252-2266 .
MLA Li, Guang-Rong et al. "Strain-induced multiscale structural changes in lamellar thermal barrier coatings" . | CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL 43 . 2 (2017) : 2252-2266 .
APA Li, Guang-Rong , Yang, Guan-Jun , Li, Cheng-Xin , Li, Chang-Jiu . Strain-induced multiscale structural changes in lamellar thermal barrier coatings . | CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL , 2017 , 43 (2) , 2252-2266 .
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Thermally Sprayed Large Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Its Stack: Geometry Optimization, Preparation, and Performance EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 26 (3) , 441-455 | JOURNAL OF THERMAL SPRAY TECHNOLOGY | IF: 1.949
WoS CC Cited Count: 3
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Abstract :

In this study, we develop a large tubular solid oxide fuel cells design with several cells in series on a porous cermet support, which has many characteristics such as self-sealing, low Ohmic loss, high strength, and good thermal expansion coefficient matching. Here, we investigate aspects of the cell design, manufacture, performance, and application. Firstly, the cell length and number of cells in series are optimized by theoretical analysis. Then, thermal spraying is applied as a cost-effective method to prepare all the cell components. Finally, the performance of different types of cells and two types of stacks is characterized. The maximum output power of one tube, which had 20 cells in series, reaches 31 and 40.5 W at 800 and 900 A degrees C, respectively. Moreover, the output power of a stack assembled with 56 tubes, each with ten cells in series, reaches 800 W at 830 A degrees C. The excellent single tube and cell stack performance suggest that thermally sprayed tubular SOFCs have significant potential for commercialized application.

Keyword :

performance thermal spraying stack tubular solid oxide fuel cells

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GB/T 7714 Zhang, Shan-Lin , Li, Cheng-Xin , Liu, Shuai et al. Thermally Sprayed Large Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Its Stack: Geometry Optimization, Preparation, and Performance [J]. | JOURNAL OF THERMAL SPRAY TECHNOLOGY , 2017 , 26 (3) : 441-455 .
MLA Zhang, Shan-Lin et al. "Thermally Sprayed Large Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Its Stack: Geometry Optimization, Preparation, and Performance" . | JOURNAL OF THERMAL SPRAY TECHNOLOGY 26 . 3 (2017) : 441-455 .
APA Zhang, Shan-Lin , Li, Cheng-Xin , Liu, Shuai , Li, Chang-Jiu , Yang, Guan-Jun , He, Peng-Jiang et al. Thermally Sprayed Large Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Its Stack: Geometry Optimization, Preparation, and Performance . | JOURNAL OF THERMAL SPRAY TECHNOLOGY , 2017 , 26 (3) , 441-455 .
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Room-temperature nitrogen-dioxide sensors based on ZnO1-x coatings deposited by solution precursor plasma spray EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 242 , 102-111 | SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL | IF: 5.667
WoS CC Cited Count: 10
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Abstract :

The stoichiometric ZnO has a bandgap greater than 2.6 eV and has no or weak response to visible light, which greatly suppresses its applications. We report here that a process of solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) can effectively narrow the bandgap and extend the absorption of ZnO to visible light region, which mainly results from highly concentrated oxygen vacancies generated during SPPS process. By photoluminescence spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we found that a large number of oxygen vacancies were implanted into ZnO1-x, prepared by SPPS. The generation of highly concentrated oxygen vacancies were mainly attributed to reducing atmosphere as well as fast heating and cooling process inherently provided by SPPS. The findings of this work create a new way for developing narrow bandgap ZnO1-x,. We present that the SPPS ZnO1-x coatings can be utilized directly as sensitive materials under visible -light illumination. The oxygen vacancies have considerable influence on its optical and electrical properties. The ZnO1-x coatings exhibited an obvious absorption covering the whole visible -light region and its bandgap was calculated to be 2.15 eV which was much narrower than that of stoichiometric ZnO (3.37 eV). The sensors based on ZnO1-x coatings showed significant responses to NO2 at room temperature. In addition, the sensor response increased linearly with NO2 concentration. The enhanced sensor properties were attributed to the rich oxygen vacancies and special coating microstructure provided by SPPS. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

Gas sensors Solution precursor plasma spray Porous nanostructure ZnO Oxygen vacancy

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GB/T 7714 Zhang, Chao , Geng, Xin , Liao, Hanlin et al. Room-temperature nitrogen-dioxide sensors based on ZnO1-x coatings deposited by solution precursor plasma spray [J]. | SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL , 2017 , 242 : 102-111 .
MLA Zhang, Chao et al. "Room-temperature nitrogen-dioxide sensors based on ZnO1-x coatings deposited by solution precursor plasma spray" . | SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL 242 (2017) : 102-111 .
APA Zhang, Chao , Geng, Xin , Liao, Hanlin , Li, Chang-Jiu , Debliquy, Marc . Room-temperature nitrogen-dioxide sensors based on ZnO1-x coatings deposited by solution precursor plasma spray . | SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL , 2017 , 242 , 102-111 .
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