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学者姓名:汤成龙

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The ignition process measurements and performance evaluations for hypergolic ionic liquid fuels: [EMIm][DCA] and [BMIm][DCA EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 215 , 612-618 | FUEL
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Abstract :

Bipropellant liquid rocket engines are typically fueled by hydrazines that exhibit extreme toxicity and carcinogenity. Recently hypergolic ionic liquids (HILs) have been emerging as environmentally friendly propellant that holds the potential for hydrazine replacement due to their low volatility, easy and safe storage and handling. The HIL is a novel concept both for chemistry community and for combustion community, and plenty of research waits to be initiated to promote practical propulsion application, especially for comprehensive understanding on their fundamental combustion. In this work, hypergolic ignition of two HILs (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide-([EMIm][DCA]) and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium dicyanamide ([BMIm][DCA]) were tested with three oxidizers (white fuming nitric acid (WFNA), red fuming nitric acid(RFNA), and nitrogen tetroxide). A drop test system was designed to control the collision event of a single droplet of fuel with an oxidizer pool. Two independent high speed cameras were spontaneously employed to capture the self-luminous images of the whole hypergolic ignition process as well as the initial impact process. The results showed that hypergolic ignition process of [EMIm][DCA]-WFNA is quite similar to that of monomethyl hydrazine-WFNA. Combined with thermo physical properties of HILs, hypergolic ignition process of [EMIm][DCA]-WFNA is proposed. To qualitatively demonstrate the overall hypergolic ignition and reactivity, the explosion delay time and the ignition delay times of various combinations of the fuel-oxidizer pairs were determined. The effects of the Weber number on the explosion delay time and the ignition delay time of [EMIm][DCA]-WFNA are quantitatively investigated. Hypergolicity of different propellant combinations is tested to investigate the influence of oxidizer's oxidative capacity and HILs' cation structure. Additionally, the propulsive performance of the two dicyanamide-based IL fuels was evaluated and compared with traditional hydrazine-based fuels, based on a steady rocket model under the same initial conditions. Results show that using WFNA as the oxidizer, BMIM DCA and EMIM DCA presented a comparable propulsive performance to that of UDMH.

Keyword :

Drop test Hypergolic ionic liquid Hypergolic ignition Green propellant fuel Propulsive performance

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GB/T 7714 Li, Jianling , Weng, Xinyan , Tang, Chenglong et al. The ignition process measurements and performance evaluations for hypergolic ionic liquid fuels: [EMIm][DCA] and [BMIm][DCA [J]. | FUEL , 2018 , 215 : 612-618 .
MLA Li, Jianling et al. "The ignition process measurements and performance evaluations for hypergolic ionic liquid fuels: [EMIm][DCA] and [BMIm][DCA" . | FUEL 215 (2018) : 612-618 .
APA Li, Jianling , Weng, Xinyan , Tang, Chenglong , Zhang, Qinghua , Fan, Wei , Huang, Zuohua . The ignition process measurements and performance evaluations for hypergolic ionic liquid fuels: [EMIm][DCA] and [BMIm][DCA . | FUEL , 2018 , 215 , 612-618 .
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Experimental Observation of Hypergolic Ignition of Superbase-Derived Ionic Liquids EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 34 (1) , 125-132 | JOURNAL OF PROPULSION AND POWER
WoS CC Cited Count: 2
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Abstract :

The hypergolic ignition behaviors of four newly synthesized ionic liquids with dicyanamide anion (ionic liquids 1 and 3) and cyanoborohydride anion (ionic liquids 2 and 4) were experimentally investigated. The results showed that successful hypergolic ignition of both group ionic liquids were achieved with white fuming nitric acid and red fuming nitric acid. Two distinct flame initiation processes illustrated by several stages were observed for each group of ionic liquids. Specifically, the ionic liquid 1 drop showed immerging, exploding, and ignition: the drop immerged and reacted with the oxidizers underneath the liquid surface, producing gas vapor and white foam like intermediates on the surface; then, the surface exploded by fast accumulation of heat and vapor underneath, followed by flame kernels formation in the adjacent gas phase. The ionic liquid 2 drop showed bouncing and igniting: it just created a crater on the oxidizer surface and then sat on the Leidenfrost vapor layer generated by impaction and reaction. Ionic liquids 3 and 4 showed a similar flame initiation process, respectively, to that of ionic liquids 1 and 2. Furthermore, the explosion delay time and ignition delay time of the four ionic liquids were recorded, both the previous and present experimental repeatabilities were analyzed, and it was shown that heat loss control was important to the experimental repeatability.

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GB/T 7714 Li, Jianling , Fan, Wei , Weng, Xinyan et al. Experimental Observation of Hypergolic Ignition of Superbase-Derived Ionic Liquids [J]. | JOURNAL OF PROPULSION AND POWER , 2018 , 34 (1) : 125-132 .
MLA Li, Jianling et al. "Experimental Observation of Hypergolic Ignition of Superbase-Derived Ionic Liquids" . | JOURNAL OF PROPULSION AND POWER 34 . 1 (2018) : 125-132 .
APA Li, Jianling , Fan, Wei , Weng, Xinyan , Tang, Chenglong , Zhang, Xuhui , Huang, Zuohua et al. Experimental Observation of Hypergolic Ignition of Superbase-Derived Ionic Liquids . | JOURNAL OF PROPULSION AND POWER , 2018 , 34 (1) , 125-132 .
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Experimental study on impingement spray and near-field spray characteristics under high-pressure cross-flow conditions EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 218 , 12-22 | FUEL
WoS CC Cited Count: 3
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Abstract :

The fuel spray injected into a direct injection (DI) engine is substantially affected by both the in-cylinder air flow and the piston cavity wall impingement. The combined effect of the air flow and the wall impingement plays an important role on the spray development, mixture formation, and subsequent combustion. In this study, the effects of cross-flow and flat wall impingement on the spray development and dispersion were investigated. The spray was injected by a valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle under various cross-flow velocities and ambient pressures. Impingement spray images in a vertical plane and several horizontal planes were obtained by a high speed video camera and a continuous wave laser sheet. A high speed video camera connected with a long-distance microscope was employed to obtain the near-field spray images. The results show that cross-flow favors spray dispersion while the high ambient pressure tends to compress the spray profiles. Additionally, under an approximate liquid-to-air momentum flux ratio q, when the ambient pressure and cross-flow velocity were varied, at 2 ms ASOI the outlines of the spray in the windward side agree well, whereas the spray extended further in the leeward side at a lower ambient pressure. At the plane of y = 25 mm, a complex vortex movement was observed that resulted in a non-uniform distribution of droplets in the upper part of the spray in the leeward side. In addition, at the plane of y = 45 mm, an empty belt area occurred in the vortex core region revealing that the density of the droplets in this region was quite low. The quantitative analysis shows that with increasing cross-flow velocity, the spray tip penetration decreases slightly before impingement while the spray tip penetrates further on the wall surface after impingement. The high cross-flow velocity favors the spray breakup and dispersion leading to a larger wall-jet vortex while the high ambient pressure restrains the spray dispersion leading to a smaller spray tip penetration and vortex height. For near-field spray, the spray image at higher ambient pressure shows fewer ligaments. With increasing cross-flow velocity, the whole spray shifted downstream. The spray outline was wider at the initial stage (0.05 ms ASOI) than that at steady stage (2 ms ASOI) of spray evolution.

Keyword :

Fuel spray Laser sheet Spray-wall impingement Near-field spray High-pressure cross-flow

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GB/T 7714 Si, Zhanbo , Shimasaki, Nagisa , Nishida, Keiya et al. Experimental study on impingement spray and near-field spray characteristics under high-pressure cross-flow conditions [J]. | FUEL , 2018 , 218 : 12-22 .
MLA Si, Zhanbo et al. "Experimental study on impingement spray and near-field spray characteristics under high-pressure cross-flow conditions" . | FUEL 218 (2018) : 12-22 .
APA Si, Zhanbo , Shimasaki, Nagisa , Nishida, Keiya , Ogata, Youichi , Guo, Min , Tang, Chenglong et al. Experimental study on impingement spray and near-field spray characteristics under high-pressure cross-flow conditions . | FUEL , 2018 , 218 , 12-22 .
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Experimental investigation on effect of ethanol and di-ethyl ether addition on the spray characteristics of diesel/biodiesel blends under high injection pressure EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 218 , 1-11 | FUEL
WoS CC Cited Count: 2
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Abstract :

In this work, a comprehensive experimental investigation on spray characteristics of four blended fuels, including diesel (D100), diesel-biodiesel (DB), diesel-biodiesel-ethanol (DBE), and diesel-biodiesel-diethyl ether (DBDE) has been conducted by using high pressure common rail injection system (up to 200 MPa). The transient spray behavior under various conditions was recorded by high speed photography with scattering light illumination. It is shown that higher injection pressure significantly accelerates the spray tip penetration (STP) evolution due to increased inertia of spray while increase in ambient pressure reduces the STP evolution due to higher gas resistance. With the addition of diethyl ether (DEE) into biodiesel, the STP of blended fuel tends to go down and corresponding projected area increases a lot when compared to DB. By means of particle droplet image analysis (PDIA) optical diagnostic method, spray microscopic parameters such as Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), droplet diameter distribution probability curve, cumulative volume curve and characteristic diameter have been investigated. Results show that both the injection pressure and ambient pressure have significant influence on the spray microscopic characteristics. In addition, for fixed injection pressure and ambient pressure, when DEE is added into DB blends, the number fraction of smaller droplets increases, though the statistic diameter with peak probability is fixed at a certain value. Furthermore, SMD of the four tested fuels decreases sequentially in the order of DB, D100, DBE, and DBDE, indicating that DEE addition favors the atomization process.

Keyword :

Biodiesel Diesel Atomization STP SMD DEE

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GB/T 7714 Zhan, Cheng , Feng, Zehao , Ma, Wen'an et al. Experimental investigation on effect of ethanol and di-ethyl ether addition on the spray characteristics of diesel/biodiesel blends under high injection pressure [J]. | FUEL , 2018 , 218 : 1-11 .
MLA Zhan, Cheng et al. "Experimental investigation on effect of ethanol and di-ethyl ether addition on the spray characteristics of diesel/biodiesel blends under high injection pressure" . | FUEL 218 (2018) : 1-11 .
APA Zhan, Cheng , Feng, Zehao , Ma, Wen'an , Zhang, Mingzhi , Tang, Chenglong , Huang, Zuohua . Experimental investigation on effect of ethanol and di-ethyl ether addition on the spray characteristics of diesel/biodiesel blends under high injection pressure . | FUEL , 2018 , 218 , 1-11 .
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Coulomb explosion and ultra-fast hypergolic ignition of borohydride-rich ionic liquids with WFNA EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 194 , 464-471 | COMBUSTION AND FLAME
WoS CC Cited Count: 1
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Abstract :

In this work, the hypergolic ignition process of 8 recently synthesized ionic liquids (I.L.$) with [BH3(CN)BH2(CN)](-) anions with white fuming nitric acid is experimentally investigated by using droplet test method and long distance microscope-high speed photography techniques. Results show that the hypergolic ignition process of the present I.L.s is of a completely different three stage nature and ultra-fast hypergolic ignition is observed for this family of I.L.s (< 5ms). Specifically, at the very first stage upon contact (within a fraction of millisecond), 'coulomb explosion' like behavior in terms of fast and vigorous ejection of liquid spikes that protrude from mixing layer is observed, and this phenomenon has never been reported in previous hypergolic test for I.L.s or conventional hydrazine based fuels. The 'coulomb explosion' delay time (CEDT) is found to be correlated with the side alkyl functional group, which indicates the I.L. structure (characterized by the side alkyl functional group and the heterocyclic core) effects on shifting the Rayleigh instability limit (E-coulomb/2E(surface) > 1). Subsequently in the second stage, liquid spikes that are ejected into the oxidizer pool during CEDT significantly increase the reactive surface area underneath the liquid surface. As a consequence, local temperature increases, gas phase intermediate product and oxidizer/fuel vapor accumulate due to the continuous liquid phase reaction underneath the surface. When the local pressure overcomes the surface tension, disintegration of the surface in terms of larger ligaments and secondary droplets ejection was observed, together with shooting out of the vapor/smoke. Finally, in the third stage when the local temperature and the vapor concentration increase sufficiently, further gas phase reaction leads to ignition. Fine and stable flame with strong bright and green luminescence continuously evolve from the initial mixing layer. Some red and dark smokes are gradually generated above the burning bright and green flame until finally the flame dies out. The ignition delay time (IDT) decreases with the increase of unsaturation index of the heterocyclic core in the cation, and also the decrease of CEDT. The enthalpy of formation of the I.L.s for different cation structures are correlated with IDT, which represents both the fuel structure chemistry and the 'coulomb explosion' enhances mixing effect on the overall reactivity of this diffusive system. (C) 2018 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

Ionic liquids Drop test Hypergolic ignition Ignition delay

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GB/T 7714 Weng, Xinyan , Tang, Chenglong , Li, Jianling et al. Coulomb explosion and ultra-fast hypergolic ignition of borohydride-rich ionic liquids with WFNA [J]. | COMBUSTION AND FLAME , 2018 , 194 : 464-471 .
MLA Weng, Xinyan et al. "Coulomb explosion and ultra-fast hypergolic ignition of borohydride-rich ionic liquids with WFNA" . | COMBUSTION AND FLAME 194 (2018) : 464-471 .
APA Weng, Xinyan , Tang, Chenglong , Li, Jianling , Zhang, Qinghua , Huang, Zuohua . Coulomb explosion and ultra-fast hypergolic ignition of borohydride-rich ionic liquids with WFNA . | COMBUSTION AND FLAME , 2018 , 194 , 464-471 .
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Experimental Study of Hypergolic Process of Ionic Liquids with BH3(CN)BH2(CN)- Anion EI Scopus CSCD PKU
期刊论文 | 2018 , 26 (7) , 557-564 | Hanneng Cailiao/Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials
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Abstract :

The reactions of 8 newly synthesized ionic liquids containing BH3(CN)BH2(CN)- anion, (I.L.1~ I.L.8), with white fuming nitric acid (WFNA) and red fuming nitric acid (RFNA ) respectively were tested by using the long focus microscope-high speed photography technique and droplet method test device, respectively. Results show that each test achieves stable hypergolic reaction and two different flame development processes were observed. Specifically, after the contact of I.L.8 with WFNA, the microexplosion is occurred and hypergolic ignition is occurred in a short time, while after the contact of I.L.8 with RFNA the aplashing of secondary droplet is occurred. Due to the effect of Leiden Frost effect, the foam like droplets after reaction is rebounded and a short combustion reaction is appeared, the hypergolic ignition is occurred after a long time. For the ionic liquid with same heterocyclic core, the ignition delay time of the ionic liquid containing the allyl group on the side chain is the shortest, followed by the ionic liquid containing ethyl, while the ignition delay time of the ionic liquid containing butyl and WFNA is the longest. For the ionic liquid with the same side chain, the ignition delay time of the ionic liquid containing the pyridine heterocyclic ring is the longest, followed by the imidazole heterocyclic ionic liquid, and the ignition delay time of the ionic liquid containing tetrahydropyrrole reacted with WFNA is the longest.The higher the enthalpy of formation is, the shorter the ignition delay time is. © 2018, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials. All right reserved.

Keyword :

Combustion reactions Enthalpy of formation Fuming nitric acids Heterocyclic rings High-speed photography technique Hypergolic ignitions Ignition delay time Ignition delays

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GB/T 7714 Weng, Xin-Yan , Du, Zong-Gang , Yu, Jun et al. Experimental Study of Hypergolic Process of Ionic Liquids with BH3(CN)BH2(CN)- Anion [J]. | Hanneng Cailiao/Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials , 2018 , 26 (7) : 557-564 .
MLA Weng, Xin-Yan et al. "Experimental Study of Hypergolic Process of Ionic Liquids with BH3(CN)BH2(CN)- Anion" . | Hanneng Cailiao/Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials 26 . 7 (2018) : 557-564 .
APA Weng, Xin-Yan , Du, Zong-Gang , Yu, Jun , Tong, Shang-Qing , Li, Jian-Ling , Zhang, Qing-Hua et al. Experimental Study of Hypergolic Process of Ionic Liquids with BH3(CN)BH2(CN)- Anion . | Hanneng Cailiao/Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials , 2018 , 26 (7) , 557-564 .
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Ignition delay times measurement and kinetic modeling studies of 1-heptene, 2-heptene and n-heptane at low to intermediate temperatures by using a rapid compression machine EI Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 197 , 30-40 | Combustion and Flame
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Abstract :

In this work, we have firstly investigated the auto-ignition behaviors of 1-heptene, 2-heptene and n-heptane in the low to intermediate temperature range (650–950 K) over various equivalence ratios at 15 and 23 bar using a rapid compression machine. Results show that n-heptane exhibits the expected negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior and shows the shortest IDTs among the three fuels, while the NTC behavior for 1-heptene and 2-heptene is moderated and quasi-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the 1st stage IDTs is observed at all test conditions. As the temperature increased over 900 K, the IDTs of the three fuels begin to be consistent indicating a moderated effect of the unsaturated bond. In the NTC temperature region, 1-heptene shows higher reactivity than 2-heptene, while opposite relative reactivity is observed in the temperature beyond the NTC region. The IDT data of 1-heptene, 2-heptene and n-heptane were then used to validate several kinetic models. Results show that the performance of the n-heptane models is generally good, while all the models underestimate the low temperature reactivity of 1-heptene. Finally, a model refinement has been made and the prediction shows better agreement with the present measured IDT as well as the experimental pressure evolution trace in literature. © 2018 The Combustion Institute

Keyword :

1-heptene 2-heptene Auto ignition behavior Compression machines Intermediate temperatures n-Heptanes Rapid compression machine Relative reactivities

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GB/T 7714 Wu, Yingtao , Liu, Yang , Tang, Chenglong et al. Ignition delay times measurement and kinetic modeling studies of 1-heptene, 2-heptene and n-heptane at low to intermediate temperatures by using a rapid compression machine [J]. | Combustion and Flame , 2018 , 197 : 30-40 .
MLA Wu, Yingtao et al. "Ignition delay times measurement and kinetic modeling studies of 1-heptene, 2-heptene and n-heptane at low to intermediate temperatures by using a rapid compression machine" . | Combustion and Flame 197 (2018) : 30-40 .
APA Wu, Yingtao , Liu, Yang , Tang, Chenglong , Huang, Zuohua . Ignition delay times measurement and kinetic modeling studies of 1-heptene, 2-heptene and n-heptane at low to intermediate temperatures by using a rapid compression machine . | Combustion and Flame , 2018 , 197 , 30-40 .
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The effect of pentanol addition on the particulate emission characteristics of a biodiesel operated diesel engine EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 209 , 132-140 | FUEL | IF: 4.908
WoS CC Cited Count: 6
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In the present study, combustion performance and the physical and chemical characteristics of soot particles from a DI diesel engine were studied. The engine was fueled with n-pentanol mixed with biodiesel at 15% and 30% by volume and operated at 1800 rpm under three engine loads (20%, 50% and 80% load). In comparison with pure biodiesel, the pentanol-biodiesel blends lead to delayed start of combustion and shortened combustion duration. The particle number concentrations of all size groups are reduced for biodiesel-pentanol blends in all the tested conditions, due to longer ignition delay time, lower viscosity and boiling point, and higher oxygen content of pentanol. The brake specific elemental carbon (EC) emissions of biodiesel were found to be lower compared to diesel and after adding pentanol in biodiesel, the EC emissions further decrease. While for organic carbon (OC) emissions, biodiesel and diesel are at similar level under the tested engine loads, and the blends show a higher fraction of OC at low and medium engine loads. The blended fuel with higher proportion of pentanol gives lower total particle-phase PAHs emissions and also a lower benzo[a] pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) compared to pure biodiesel under the tested engine loads.

Keyword :

Pentanol Particulate emissions PAHs Biodiesel OC Diesel engine EC

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GB/T 7714 Yang, Ke , Wei, Long , Cheung, C. S. et al. The effect of pentanol addition on the particulate emission characteristics of a biodiesel operated diesel engine [J]. | FUEL , 2017 , 209 : 132-140 .
MLA Yang, Ke et al. "The effect of pentanol addition on the particulate emission characteristics of a biodiesel operated diesel engine" . | FUEL 209 (2017) : 132-140 .
APA Yang, Ke , Wei, Long , Cheung, C. S. , Tang, Chenglong , Huang, Zuohua . The effect of pentanol addition on the particulate emission characteristics of a biodiesel operated diesel engine . | FUEL , 2017 , 209 , 132-140 .
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Ignition delay times of low alkylfurans at high pressures using a rapid compression machine EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 36 (1) , 323-332 | PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE | IF: 5.336
WoS CC Cited Count: 4
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Auto-ignition behavior of 2-ethylfuran (EF) was investigated in the low to intermediate temperature range (766-1013 K) over equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 at 16 and 30 bar using a rapid compression machine. Equivalence ratio was varied by changing the mole fractions of O-2 while fixing the fuel fraction. The fuel did not show "negative temperature coefficient (NTC)" or two stage ignition behavior in the present measuring range. Simulations were conducted on the basis of the alkylfuran mechanism of Somers et al. (2013) [1], in which the EF sub-mechanism is not fully developed. Optimization of the EF sub-mechanism was attempted. Results show that the modified mechanism shows better agreement with our measurements and other data in the literature. Comparison of the reactivity of EF with that of 2-methyl furan (MF) and 2, 5-dimethyl furan (DMF) under various equivalence ratios was conducted and results show that the relative reactivity of the three furanic fuels depends complicatedly on both equivalence ratio and temperature, which was further interpreted by examining the ignition kinetics. As DMF is more branched, H-abstractions contribute most to the fuel consumption. For EF and MF, OH-additions at C2 and C5 positions dominate the reaction pathways. From reaction flux analyses, the reactions involving alkyl side chains of alkylfurans are analogous with those of alkylbenzenes at low to intermediate temperature oxidation conditions. Moreover, large amount of alkylfurans go through OH-addition reactions on the ring, which is not observed in the reaction pathways of alkylbenzenes. (C) 2016 by The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Keyword :

Low temperature Ethylfuran Ignition delay times Alkylfurans

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GB/T 7714 Xu, Nan , Wu, Yingtao , Tang, Chenglong et al. Ignition delay times of low alkylfurans at high pressures using a rapid compression machine [J]. | PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE , 2017 , 36 (1) : 323-332 .
MLA Xu, Nan et al. "Ignition delay times of low alkylfurans at high pressures using a rapid compression machine" . | PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE 36 . 1 (2017) : 323-332 .
APA Xu, Nan , Wu, Yingtao , Tang, Chenglong , Zhang, Peng , He, Xin , Wang, Zhi et al. Ignition delay times of low alkylfurans at high pressures using a rapid compression machine . | PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE , 2017 , 36 (1) , 323-332 .
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Effect of di-n-butyl ether blending with soybean-biodiesel on the near-nozzle spray characteristics EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 191 , 300-311 | FUEL | IF: 4.908
WoS CC Cited Count: 3
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Abstract :

In this work, the near-nozzle spray characteristics of soybean biodiesel, di-n-butyl ether (DBE)/biodiesel blends and 0# diesel were investigated by using a high pressure common-rail injection system and the effect of experiment conditions and fuel physical properties on the near-nozzle spray structures were explored. Microscopic spray images at the near-nozzle field were captured by the high-resolution microscopy. The micro spray cone angle and micro projected spray area were obtained from the processed spray images for quantitative analysis. The results show that the initial spray of diesel is easier to breakup into ligaments and droplets because of smaller surface tension and viscosity compared to that of biodiesel under atmospheric condition. The spray with more ligaments was easily restrained by the ambient gas and promoted to evolve along the radial direction, leading to a wider micro spray cone angle of diesel. The breakup of liquid jet also tends to increase the micro projected spray area of diesel. When 30% of DBE was added into biodiesel, both the micro spray cone angle and projected spray area were increased due to the decreased surface tension and viscosity of the blended fuel. The initial spray images reveal that the high injection pressure favors the spray primary breakup while the high ambient pressure results in worse spray primary breakup. The quantitative analysis shows that the injection pressure has little influence on the micro spray cone angle but results in the increase in micro projected spray area, while both parameters increase significantly under high ambient pressures. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

Biodiesel Di-n-butyl ether Microscopy Near-nozzle spray

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GB/T 7714 Tang, Chenglong , Guan, Li , Feng, Zehao et al. Effect of di-n-butyl ether blending with soybean-biodiesel on the near-nozzle spray characteristics [J]. | FUEL , 2017 , 191 : 300-311 .
MLA Tang, Chenglong et al. "Effect of di-n-butyl ether blending with soybean-biodiesel on the near-nozzle spray characteristics" . | FUEL 191 (2017) : 300-311 .
APA Tang, Chenglong , Guan, Li , Feng, Zehao , Zhan, Cheng , Yang, Ke , Huang, Zuohua . Effect of di-n-butyl ether blending with soybean-biodiesel on the near-nozzle spray characteristics . | FUEL , 2017 , 191 , 300-311 .
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