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Prices, availability and affordability of insulin products: a cross-sectional survey in Shaanxi Province, western China. PubMed Scopus SCIE
期刊论文 | 2019 , 24 (1) , 43-52 | Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH
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To evaluate price, availability and affordability of insulin products in Shaanxi Province, western China.We used a simplified and adapted WHO/Health Action International method to obtain the availability and prices of insulin products and 5 oral anti-diabetic medicines as comparators in public general hospitals and private retail outlets. In addition, we investigated the price components of 8 selected insulin products by tracing the supply chain.All three kinds of insulin products, prandial, basal and premixed insulin, are 100% available in public hospitals, and have fairly high availability in the private sector (62.5% to 68.8%). The prices of most insulin products were higher than international reference prices in both sectors (ranging from 0.95 times to 2.33 times). All insulin products were unaffordable as they would cost 3.5 to 17.1 days' wage of the lowest-paid government workers in Shaanxi. The manufacturer's markup (selling price), which comprised more than 60% of the final price of all insulin products surveyed, was the largest price component.Although availability of insulin products was high in public general hospitals and private retail pharmacies, their high price made them unaffordable to diabetes patients, especially low-income patients. The government should increase insurance compensation for those who need these life-saving medicines or decrease the cost of insulin products through negotiation with suppliers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

price components insulin China affordability availability

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GB/T 7714 Li Zongjie , Feng Qinqin , Kabba John Alimamy et al. Prices, availability and affordability of insulin products: a cross-sectional survey in Shaanxi Province, western China. [J]. | Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH , 2019 , 24 (1) : 43-52 .
MLA Li Zongjie et al. "Prices, availability and affordability of insulin products: a cross-sectional survey in Shaanxi Province, western China." . | Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH 24 . 1 (2019) : 43-52 .
APA Li Zongjie , Feng Qinqin , Kabba John Alimamy , Yang Caijun , Chang Jie , Jiang Minghuan et al. Prices, availability and affordability of insulin products: a cross-sectional survey in Shaanxi Province, western China. . | Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH , 2019 , 24 (1) , 43-52 .
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An assessment of counseling quality provided by community pharmacies to type 2 diabetic adult patients for oral therapy: a simulated patient study from Pakistan. PubMed
期刊论文 | 2019 | Endocrine journal
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This study was conducted to assess quality of counseling provided to type 2 diabetic patients. For this cross-sectional study, a simulated patient method was applied in 562 selected community pharmacies of Punjab, Pakistan. A scenario for the metformin oral therapy was developed that illustrates direct counseling for adult diabetic patients. Counseling and communication skills were also assessed. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used for analysis. Only 29.4% of simulated patients received medication counseling directly; 47.6% received it on request. About 32.8% of clients were referred to a physician without counseling. The most frequently provided information was dietary instruction (94.8%) and dose of therapy (84.5%). Only one quarter (25.3%) of simulated patients were asked about disease duration and similar rate (25.0%) was found for discussions of special warnings. The side effects, drug storage, drug-drug interactions and duration of therapy were ignored. Minimal information was provided about other medication during therapy (0.2%) and effect of medicine withdrawal (2.7%). About 59.5% simulated patients were instructed for compliance to medication. Counseling to type 2 diabetic patients in Pakistani community pharmacies is not very satisfactory. Pharmacies' staff have little focus on counseling. Professional training of staff could improve counseling and communication skills.

Keyword :

Counseling Metformin Type 2 diabetic patients Community pharmacies Pakistan

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GB/T 7714 Aziz Muhammad Majid , Yang Shimin , Masood Imran et al. An assessment of counseling quality provided by community pharmacies to type 2 diabetic adult patients for oral therapy: a simulated patient study from Pakistan. [J]. | Endocrine journal , 2019 .
MLA Aziz Muhammad Majid et al. "An assessment of counseling quality provided by community pharmacies to type 2 diabetic adult patients for oral therapy: a simulated patient study from Pakistan." . | Endocrine journal (2019) .
APA Aziz Muhammad Majid , Yang Shimin , Masood Imran , Zhu Shan , Raza Muhammad Ali , Ji Wenjing et al. An assessment of counseling quality provided by community pharmacies to type 2 diabetic adult patients for oral therapy: a simulated patient study from Pakistan. . | Endocrine journal , 2019 .
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Patients' Anticipation for the Pharmacies of Rural Communities: A Qualitative Study from Pakistan. PubMed SSCI SCIE
期刊论文 | 2019 , 16 (1) | International journal of environmental research and public health
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<i>Background</i>: Community pharmacies are an integrated part of healthcare systems worldwide. In low and middle income countries like Pakistan, the paradigm of pharmacy practice is shifting from dispensing medicines to clinical activities. There are disparities in these practices according to location. Pharmacies in urban localities are better than those in rural areas. This qualitative study was conducted to explore patients' expectations and current practices in rural pharmacies. <i>Methods</i>: A cohort of adult pharmacy visitors (aged > 18 years) that reside in rural community was selected. Consenting participants were recruited by purposive sampling technique until thematic saturation level was achieved. A total of 34 patients were interviewed. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a semi structured interview guide. All the data were transcribed and used to originate the themes. <i>Results</i>: On analysis, a total of 20 themes were obtained. Sixteen themes pronounced the current provided services. Four themes provided some suggestions for the development of better pharmacies. On call services to provide medicines, limited free extended pharmacy services, interest in patients' wellbeing, appropriate referral, vaccination, free medical camp, medical services at home, first aid, and counseling were appreciated by patients. Patients stated that medicines are inappropriately stored in unhygienic conditions, prices of medicines are comparatively high, and medicines are substandard. Unavailability of medicines, inept dispensing, limited staffing with poor knowledge, limited working hours, and quackery promotion are challenges in rural pharmacy practice. Patients say that non marginal pricing, informative services, new legislation, and proper vigilance by officials can improve the pharmacy services in rural communities. <i>Conclusions</i>: Patients alleged that rural pharmacies perform deprived practices. To improve service, new legislation and the proper implementation of existing law is needed.

Keyword :

patients’ anticipation Pakistan rural population community pharmacies qualitative study

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GB/T 7714 Aziz Muhammad Majid , Jiang Minghuan , Masood Imran et al. Patients' Anticipation for the Pharmacies of Rural Communities: A Qualitative Study from Pakistan. [J]. | International journal of environmental research and public health , 2019 , 16 (1) .
MLA Aziz Muhammad Majid et al. "Patients' Anticipation for the Pharmacies of Rural Communities: A Qualitative Study from Pakistan." . | International journal of environmental research and public health 16 . 1 (2019) .
APA Aziz Muhammad Majid , Jiang Minghuan , Masood Imran , Chang Jie , Shan Zhu , Raza Muhammad Ali et al. Patients' Anticipation for the Pharmacies of Rural Communities: A Qualitative Study from Pakistan. . | International journal of environmental research and public health , 2019 , 16 (1) .
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Disparities in out-of-pocket inpatient expenditures in rural Shaanxi Province, western China from 2011 to 2014: a time series analysis SSCI SCIE PubMed Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 23 (6) , 661-667 | TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH
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ObjectiveTo investigate the long-term trend of disparity of monthly average out-of-pocket inpatient expenditures (OOP) between areas with different developing levels since the new healthcare reform. MethodsTime series regression was used to assess the trend of disparities of OOP and monthly average inpatient expenditures (AIE) between areas with different developing levels in rural Shaanxi Province, western China. The data of OOP and AIE in primary health institutions, secondary hospitals, tertiary hospitals and also all levels of the hospital were analysed separately covering the period 2011 through to 2014. ResultsThe disparity of AIE at all levels of hospitals was increasing (coefficient=0.003, P=0.029), and only the disparity of AIE in secondary hospitals was statistical significant (coefficient=0.003, P=0.012) when separately considering different levels of the hospital. The disparity of OOP in all levels of the hospital was increasing (coefficient=0.007, P=0.001), and the OOP in primary hospitals contributed most of the disparity (coefficient=0.019, P=0.000), followed by OOP in secondary (coefficient=0.008, P=0.003) and tertiary hospitals (coefficient=0.004, P=0.091). ConclusionsA statistically significant absolute increase in the trend of disparities of OOP and AIE at all levels of hospital was detected after the new healthcare reform in Shaanxi Province, western China. The increase rate of disparity of OOP was bigger than that of AIE. A modified health insurance plan should be proposed to guarantee equity in the future. Abstract ObjectifsEtudier la tendance a long terme de la disparite dans les depenses directes de la poche (DDP) moyennes mensuelles des patients hospitalises entre les regions ayant des niveaux de developpement differents depuis la nouvelle reforme des soins de sante. MethodesLa regression des series chronologiques a ete utilisee pour evaluer la tendance des disparites des DDP et des depenses moyennes mensuelles des patients hospitalises (DMMPH) entre les regions ayant differents niveaux de developpement dans la province rurale du Shaanxi, dans l'ouest de la Chine. Les donnees des DDP et des DMMPH dans les etablissements de sante primaires, les hopitaux secondaires, les hopitaux tertiaires et a tous les niveaux de l'hopital ont ete analysees separement pour la periode allant de 2011 a 2014. ResultatsLa disparite des DMMPH a tous les niveaux des hopitaux augmentait (coefficient = 0,003; p = 0,029) et seule la disparite des DMMPH dans les hopitaux secondaires etait statistiquement significative (coefficient = 0,003; p = 0,012) lorsqu'on considerait separement differents niveaux de l'hopital. La disparite des DDP a tous les niveaux de l'hopital augmentait (coefficient = 0,007; P = 0.001) et les DDP dans les hopitaux primaires contribuait a la plus grande partie de la disparite (coefficient = 0,019; P = 0,000), suivie des DDP dans les hopitaux secondaires (coefficient = 0,008; p = 0,003) et tertiaires (coefficient = 0,004; p = 0,091). ConclusionsUne augmentation absolue statistiquement significative de la tendance des disparites entre les DDP et les DMMPH a tous les niveaux de l'hopital a ete detectee apres la nouvelle reforme des soins de sante dans la province du Shaanxi, dans l'ouest de la Chine. L'augmentation du taux de disparite des DDP etait plus importante que celle des DMMPH. Un schema d'assurance maladie modifie devrait etre propose pour garantir l'equite a l'avenir.

Keyword :

disparity out-of-pocket expenditures inpatient expenditure health insurance

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GB/T 7714 Yang, Caijun , Cai, Wenfang , Li, Zongjie et al. Disparities in out-of-pocket inpatient expenditures in rural Shaanxi Province, western China from 2011 to 2014: a time series analysis [J]. | TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH , 2018 , 23 (6) : 661-667 .
MLA Yang, Caijun et al. "Disparities in out-of-pocket inpatient expenditures in rural Shaanxi Province, western China from 2011 to 2014: a time series analysis" . | TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH 23 . 6 (2018) : 661-667 .
APA Yang, Caijun , Cai, Wenfang , Li, Zongjie , Fang, Yu . Disparities in out-of-pocket inpatient expenditures in rural Shaanxi Province, western China from 2011 to 2014: a time series analysis . | TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH , 2018 , 23 (6) , 661-667 .
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Direct and indirect cost of diabetes care among patients with type 2 diabetes in private clinics: a multicenter study in Punjab, Pakistan SSCI SCIE PubMed Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 18 (6) , 647-653 | EXPERT REVIEW OF PHARMACOECONOMICS & OUTCOMES RESEARCH
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Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has a very high prevalence and poses a huge financial encumbrance on patients. This study aimed to evaluate the cost of diabetes care among patients with type 2 diabetes in private clinics of southern Punjab, Pakistan. Research design and methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, prevalence-based, cost-of-illness (COI) study conducted in six private clinics of southern Punjab from July to September 2016, using a pretested questionnaire. Study participants were recruited using a random selection method. Continuous variables, including direct and indirect costs, were summarized using descriptive statistics. Inferential statistics were also used to analyze the correlation between the variables and cost. Results: The mean annual direct cost per patient with diabetes was estimated to be 332 USD. Medications accounted for the largest share (60.4%) of this cost. Age, locality, high socioeconomic status, and prolonged disease duration were significantly associated with the direct costs of illness (p<0.05). Moreover, 19% of total earnings among very low-income patients were spent on diabetes care. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients' income is spent on diabetes care in Punjab. Our findings support the substantial individual and societal burden caused by diabetes.

Keyword :

Diabetes mellitus Pakistan indirect cost direct cost on diabetes

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GB/T 7714 Gillani, Ali Hassan , Aziz, Muhammad Majid , Masood, Imran et al. Direct and indirect cost of diabetes care among patients with type 2 diabetes in private clinics: a multicenter study in Punjab, Pakistan [J]. | EXPERT REVIEW OF PHARMACOECONOMICS & OUTCOMES RESEARCH , 2018 , 18 (6) : 647-653 .
MLA Gillani, Ali Hassan et al. "Direct and indirect cost of diabetes care among patients with type 2 diabetes in private clinics: a multicenter study in Punjab, Pakistan" . | EXPERT REVIEW OF PHARMACOECONOMICS & OUTCOMES RESEARCH 18 . 6 (2018) : 647-653 .
APA Gillani, Ali Hassan , Aziz, Muhammad Majid , Masood, Imran , Saqib, Anum , Yang, Caijun , Chang, Jie et al. Direct and indirect cost of diabetes care among patients with type 2 diabetes in private clinics: a multicenter study in Punjab, Pakistan . | EXPERT REVIEW OF PHARMACOECONOMICS & OUTCOMES RESEARCH , 2018 , 18 (6) , 647-653 .
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Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Diabetes in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan SSCI SCIE PubMed Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 15 (9) | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
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Background: Low knowledge about diabetes risk factors coupled with high disease prevalence is common in low-resource countries. This study evaluated diabetes-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the general population in Punjab (Pakistan). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts in Punjab from January to March 2017. Data were collected from 2019 adults aged 18-90 years through face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. The total knowledge score ranged from 0-9; a score 6 was considered adequate diabetes awareness. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and linear and binary logistic regression were used for the analyses. Results: Respondents' mean age was 32.92 +/- 11.4 years. In total, 85.9% of respondents had heard of diabetes, and 30.1% knew about the glucose tolerance test. We found 2.3% of respondents scored zero for diabetes knowledge, 11.3% scored 9, and 47.4% scored 6 (adequate awareness). Being female ( = 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16, 0.05; p = 0.001), socioeconomic status ( = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.36; p < 0.001), being diabetic ( = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.10; p < 0.001), and higher education ( = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.33; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with knowledge score. Respondents with high socioeconomic status showed significantly higher positive attitudes compared with those with low socioeconomic status (adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.24). Only 8.7% (30/343) of those diagnosed with diabetes had never undergone blood glucose screening since diagnosis. Conclusions: Knowledge of diabetes risk factors, management, and care is low in Pakistan's general population. Targeted public education programs should be instigated at a national level to increase understanding of diabetes prevention and treatment.

Keyword :

Pakistan knowledge practice general population attitude diabetes mellitus

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GB/T 7714 Gillani, Ali Hassan , Islam, Fakir Mohammad Amirul , Hayat, Khezar et al. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Diabetes in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan [J]. | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH , 2018 , 15 (9) .
MLA Gillani, Ali Hassan et al. "Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Diabetes in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan" . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH 15 . 9 (2018) .
APA Gillani, Ali Hassan , Islam, Fakir Mohammad Amirul , Hayat, Khezar , Atif, Naveel , Yang, Caijun , Chang, Jie et al. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Diabetes in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH , 2018 , 15 (9) .
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A School-Based Educational Intervention for School-Aged Children and Caregivers about Rational Use of Antibiotics in Urban Areas of Shaanxi Province: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Research SSCI SCIE Scopus PubMed
期刊论文 | 2018 , 15 (9) | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
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(1) Background: Antibiotic resistance is an imperative public health issue globally. Major factors that are resulting in this trend are the irrational and excessive use of antibiotics. Children account for a greater population of antibiotics use, therefore, an educational intervention on the rational use of antibiotics for children and caregivers will be beneficial. (2) Methods: A randomized controlled and parallel group study of fifth grade children and their caregivers will be evaluated in four primary schools in Baoji and Weinan of the Shaanxi Province. Two primary schools will be randomly selected for the educational intervention and two schools will serve as a control group. In the intervention arm, educational interventions will be conducted among caregivers and their children. The intervention measures include interactive training sessions, booklets, and printed or electronic educational materials that will be given to the caregivers or the school-aged children. In the control arm, no interventions will be implemented. Baseline data collected from June, 2018 and the intervention will last for three months. Knowledge-Attitude-Practice (KAP) questionnaires will be used to evaluate the caregivers' knowledge, their attitude, and their practice. Knowledge-Retention questionnaires will be used to assess the children's knowledge about microbes, antibiotics, and hygiene. (3) Discussion: This study is a unique comprehensive intervention targeting both children and their caregivers. We hypothesize a decrease in the irrational use of antibiotics among the studied population. Hence, this result would provide evidence for policy makers and educational departments for the implementation of similar interventions on the rational use of antibiotics.

Keyword :

antibiotics resistance caregivers educational intervention upper respiratory tract infection children rational antibiotic use

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GB/T 7714 Zhang, Yu , Kabba, John , Chang, Jie et al. A School-Based Educational Intervention for School-Aged Children and Caregivers about Rational Use of Antibiotics in Urban Areas of Shaanxi Province: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Research [J]. | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH , 2018 , 15 (9) .
MLA Zhang, Yu et al. "A School-Based Educational Intervention for School-Aged Children and Caregivers about Rational Use of Antibiotics in Urban Areas of Shaanxi Province: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Research" . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH 15 . 9 (2018) .
APA Zhang, Yu , Kabba, John , Chang, Jie , Ji, Wenjing , Zhu, Shan , Yu, Jiale et al. A School-Based Educational Intervention for School-Aged Children and Caregivers about Rational Use of Antibiotics in Urban Areas of Shaanxi Province: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Research . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH , 2018 , 15 (9) .
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Pattern of medication selling and self medication practices: A study from Punjab, Pakistan SCIE PubMed Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 13 (3) | PLOS ONE
WoS CC Cited Count: 1 SCOPUS Cited Count: 2
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Background Access to medicines without prescription is a major contributing factor for self-medication practices. This study was designed to examine the ratio of non-prescribed medicines sales and self-medication practices in Punjab, Pakistan. This study also evaluates the reasons for self-medication within its communities. Methods An observational study was conducted in 272 systemically selected pharmacies to analyze medicines-related sales, with or without prescription. A cross-sectional survey was performed between June 2015 and November 2016. Consumers were interviewed about their self-medication practices. Results Of the pharmacies surveyed, 65.3% participated in the study. A total of 4348 medicines were purchased for self-medication by 3037 consumers (15.2% of all study participants), of which 873 (28.7%) participated in an interview. Majority (81.2%) medicine purchaser, (90.9%) interview participants, and (59.4%) drug users were male. On average, each community pharmacy sold 7.9 medicines without prescription each day, to an average of 5.5 customers. Many participants (28.9%) had matriculation in their formal education. The medicines most often sold for self-medication were analgesics and antipyretics(39.4%). More than 25% of participants reported fever symptoms and 47.8% assumed their illness was too trivial to consult a doctor. Media advertisements were the most common source of information for participants (46.7%). Conclusion Many types of medicines were often sold without prescription from community pharmacies. Self-medication was common practice for a wide range of illnesses. Pakistan also needs effective implementation of policies to monitor medication sales. Public education about rational medication and limits to advertising medicine are very necessary.

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GB/T 7714 Aziz, Muhammad Majid , Masood, Imran , Yousaf, Mahreen et al. Pattern of medication selling and self medication practices: A study from Punjab, Pakistan [J]. | PLOS ONE , 2018 , 13 (3) .
MLA Aziz, Muhammad Majid et al. "Pattern of medication selling and self medication practices: A study from Punjab, Pakistan" . | PLOS ONE 13 . 3 (2018) .
APA Aziz, Muhammad Majid , Masood, Imran , Yousaf, Mahreen , Saleem, Hammad , Ye, Dan , Fang, Yu . Pattern of medication selling and self medication practices: A study from Punjab, Pakistan . | PLOS ONE , 2018 , 13 (3) .
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The current status and effects of emergency drug shortages in China: Perceptions of emergency department physicians SCIE PubMed Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 13 (10) | PLOS ONE
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Objectives The shortage of emergency drugs in China is severe. This study aimed to characterize emergency drug shortages in China and to measure their effects. Methods An online questionnaire based on a literature review was sent to emergency department physicians in Chinese secondary and tertiary hospitals from November 2016 to February 2017. The survey asked physicians questions about their experiences with emergency drug shortages. Results In total, 236 physicians from 29 provinces participated in the survey. According to their responses, 90.7% of the respondents experienced drug shortages during the last year. More than half of the physicians (65.7%) reported that drug shortages occurred at least once a month. Hospitals in the eastern and western regions of China had more emergency drugs in shortage than hospitals in central China, especially those with many inpatient beds (>= 800). In addition, the shortage situation was more serious in secondary hospitals than in tertiary hospitals. More respondents agreed that original medicines, injections, essential medicines, medicines without alternative agents and cheap medicines were more susceptible to shortages than generics, oral medicines, nonessential medicines, medicines with alternative agents and expensive medicines, respectively. Most respondents thought that drug shortages always, often or sometimes affected patients [delayed therapy (62.6%), longer rescue and recovery times (58.9%) and higher costs (58.7%)] and physicians [inconvenience (81.0%), higher pressure (76.5%) and harm to patient-doctor relationships (72%)] and compromised hospital reputations (55.1%). Conclusions The shortage of emergency drugs in China is serious, especially in secondary hospitals located in eastern and western China. Emergency drug shortages have significant effects on patients and physicians.

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GB/T 7714 Yang, Caijun , Cai, Wenfang , Li, Zongjie et al. The current status and effects of emergency drug shortages in China: Perceptions of emergency department physicians [J]. | PLOS ONE , 2018 , 13 (10) .
MLA Yang, Caijun et al. "The current status and effects of emergency drug shortages in China: Perceptions of emergency department physicians" . | PLOS ONE 13 . 10 (2018) .
APA Yang, Caijun , Cai, Wenfang , Li, Zongjie , Page, Amy Theresa , Fang, Yu . The current status and effects of emergency drug shortages in China: Perceptions of emergency department physicians . | PLOS ONE , 2018 , 13 (10) .
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陕西省医疗机构抗肿瘤药品短缺现状分析
期刊论文 | 2018 , (3) , 408-411 | 西北药学杂志
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目的 调查陕西省医疗机构抗肿瘤药品短缺情况,为解决该类药品短缺问题提供参考.方法 采用问卷调查法对陕西省各地市医疗机构抗肿瘤短缺药品现状进行分析,主要包括抗肿瘤药品短缺品种和短缺原因等.结果 存在短缺现象的抗肿瘤药品有24种,其中短缺最严重的有4种,短缺频次由高到低依次为:丝裂霉素、平阳霉素、氟尿嘧啶和长春新碱;在短缺品种中,至少有27家医疗机构反映丝裂霉素的短缺现象较突出,有10家医疗机构反映平阳霉素存在短缺现象.结论 陕西省医疗机构抗肿瘤药品短缺现象较严重.政府部门应发挥政策引导作用,干预原材料市场价格波动,鼓励更多企业投入生产或开发更多可替代药品.

Keyword :

抗肿瘤药品 医疗机构 药品短缺 问卷调查

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GB/T 7714 杨悦 , 许森 , 方宇 . 陕西省医疗机构抗肿瘤药品短缺现状分析 [J]. | 西北药学杂志 , 2018 , (3) : 408-411 .
MLA 杨悦 et al. "陕西省医疗机构抗肿瘤药品短缺现状分析" . | 西北药学杂志 3 (2018) : 408-411 .
APA 杨悦 , 许森 , 方宇 . 陕西省医疗机构抗肿瘤药品短缺现状分析 . | 西北药学杂志 , 2018 , (3) , 408-411 .
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