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Awareness and Attitudes of the Pakistani Population With Regard to Physician-Pharmaceutical Company Interaction: A Cross-Sectional Study SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2022 , 12 | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY
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Objective: To determine the awareness and attitudes of the Pakistani population regarding physician-pharmaceutical company interactions.Methods: The data were collected from primary health care clinics and pharmacy outlets located within cities of six randomly selected districts of the Punjab Province. Those individuals (age >= 18 years) who have just completed their visit to the physician and well understand Urdu language were approached. Descriptive analysis was performed for all variables by using SPSS (IBM version 26).Results: A total of 3,852 participants fully completed the study out of 4,301 (response rate 89.5%). Of those, 30.9% were female; two-thirds (66.7%) were aware of drug representatives' visits to clinics. The majority were aware of pharmaceutical company material presence (or absence) in the physicians' rooms (56.6%), company items with logos (66.8%), patient education materials (73.4%), and 60.8% thought that receiving gifts from companies was "wrong/unethical" practice for physicians, which was lower in comparison to other professions such as judges to accept gifts from lawyers (65.6%) and professional sports umpires to acknowledge gifts (64.3%). A minority said that they have lower trust on physicians for using drug company notepads or pens (16.7%), going on trips sponsored by the company (16.7%), accepting gifts <15,000 PKR (90.3 US$) (26.7%), and accepting gifts >15,000 PKR (90.3 US$) (40.0%).Conclusion: Survey participants were well aware of physician-pharmaceutical company interactions. Participants were more knowledgeable regarding the pharmaceutical company presence (or absence) in physicians' offices than about gift-related practices of physicians. Trust on the physician was not affected by small gifts but by the large gifts.

Keyword :

general public interaction Pakistan pharmaceutical company physician

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GB/T 7714 Gillani, Ali Hassan , Omer, Sumaira , Arshad, Hafsa et al. Awareness and Attitudes of the Pakistani Population With Regard to Physician-Pharmaceutical Company Interaction: A Cross-Sectional Study [J]. | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY , 2022 , 12 .
MLA Gillani, Ali Hassan et al. "Awareness and Attitudes of the Pakistani Population With Regard to Physician-Pharmaceutical Company Interaction: A Cross-Sectional Study" . | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY 12 (2022) .
APA Gillani, Ali Hassan , Omer, Sumaira , Arshad, Hafsa , Liu, Wenchen , Chen, Chen , Bashir, Sadia et al. Awareness and Attitudes of the Pakistani Population With Regard to Physician-Pharmaceutical Company Interaction: A Cross-Sectional Study . | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY , 2022 , 12 .
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Assessment of Factors Associated with Unfavorable Outcomes among Drug-Resistant TB Patients: A 6-Year Retrospective Study from Pakistan SCIE SSCI Scopus
期刊论文 | 2022 , 19 (3) | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
SCOPUS Cited Count: 4
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The spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) poses significant challenges to the control and successful eradication of TB globally. The current retrospective study was designed to evaluate the treatment outcomes and identify the risk factors associated with unsuccessful outcomes among DR TB patients. A total of 277/308 eligible DR TB patients were enrolled for treatment at the programmatic management unit of DR TB at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad between January 2014 and July 2019. Treatment outcomes were defined according to the WHO recommendations. Death, treatment failure, and lost to follow-up (LTFU) were collectively grouped as unsuccessful treatment outcomes, whereas cured and treatment completed were summed up together as successful treatment outcomes. Out of the total 277 patients, 265 (95.67%) were multidrug/rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) cases, 8 (2.89%) were isoniazid resistant cases, and 4 (1.44%) were extensively drug-resistant ones. In the current cohort, a total of 177 (63.9%) achieved successful treatment outcomes. Among them, 153 (55.2%) were declared cured and 24 (8.7%) completed their treatment. Of the remaining 100 (36.1%) patients with unsuccessful outcomes, 60 (21.7%) died, 32 (11.5%) were LTFU, and 8 (2.9%) had failed treatment. The proportion of male patients was relatively higher (55.2%), within the age group of 21-40 years (47.3%) and lived in rural areas (66.8%). The multivariate analysis revealed that unsuccessful outcomes had a statistically significant association with being male (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-3.36), being in an age group above 60 years (AOR: 3.34, 95% CI: 1.09-10.1), suffering from any comorbidity (AOR: 2.69, 95% CI: 1.35-5.38), and the history of use of second-line drugs (AOR; 3.51, 95% CI 1.35-9.12). In conclusion, treatment outcomes among DR TB patients at the study site were poor and did not achieve the treatment success target (>= 75%) set by the World Health Organization.

Keyword :

antibiotics drug-resistant tuberculosis epidemiology factors treatment success

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GB/T 7714 Khan, Farman Ullah , Rehman, Asim Ur , Khan, Faiz Ullah et al. Assessment of Factors Associated with Unfavorable Outcomes among Drug-Resistant TB Patients: A 6-Year Retrospective Study from Pakistan [J]. | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH , 2022 , 19 (3) .
MLA Khan, Farman Ullah et al. "Assessment of Factors Associated with Unfavorable Outcomes among Drug-Resistant TB Patients: A 6-Year Retrospective Study from Pakistan" . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH 19 . 3 (2022) .
APA Khan, Farman Ullah , Rehman, Asim Ur , Khan, Faiz Ullah , Hayat, Khezar , Khan, Amjad , Ahmad, Nafees et al. Assessment of Factors Associated with Unfavorable Outcomes among Drug-Resistant TB Patients: A 6-Year Retrospective Study from Pakistan . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH , 2022 , 19 (3) .
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Assessment of Adverse Drug Events, Their Risk Factors, and Management Among Patients Treated for Multidrug-Resistant TB: A Prospective Cohort Study From Pakistan SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2022 , 13 | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY
SCOPUS Cited Count: 6
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Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a growing public health problem. Treatment regimens used against MDR-TB are costly, prolonged, and associated with more side effects as compared with the drug-susceptible tuberculosis. This study was framed to determine the incidence of adverse drug events, risk factors, and their management in MDR-TB patients.Methods: This prospective follow-up cohort study was conducted at the site of programmatic management of drug-resistant TB located at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. All patients, irrespective of their age, gender, and ethnicity, were included in the study. Adverse drug events were observed in patients at different time points during the study. Patients enrolled for the treatment from January 2018 were prospectively followed till December 2020 up to their end treatment outcomes.Results: Out of 126 MDR-TB patients enrolled for treatment, 116 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Most patients (50.9%) were between 18 and 45 years of age. A minimum of one adverse event was experienced by (50.9%) patients. Of all the adverse events, gastrointestinal disorders were more frequent (47.4%), followed by arthralgia (28.4%) and psychiatric disturbance (20.6%). Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed a significant association with the incidence of adverse events in patients with age group above 60 years (odds ratio (OR) 4.50; 95% CI 1.05-19.2), active smokers (OR 4.20; 95% CI 1.31-13.4), delayed reporting to the TB center (OR 4.03; 95% CI 1.34-12.1), and treatment without bedaquiline regime (OR 3.54; 95% CI 1.23-10.1). Most of the patients (94.6%), counseled by the pharmacist, were found to be satisfied with the information provided and looked for more pharmacist counseling opportunities in the management of MDR-TB.Conclusion: Current findings recommend that ADEs might be well managed by timely identification and reporting. Bedaquiline coupled with other active medications lowered the chance of ADEs in MDR-TB patients. Elderly patients, active smoking behavior, and those who have a delay in the treatment initiation are more prone to ADEs. Clinical pharmacist's contribution to TB control programs may help caregivers and patients concerning the rational use of medication, early detection, and management of ADEs.

Keyword :

adverse drug event management multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patient satisfaction pharmacist

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GB/T 7714 Khan, Farman Ullah , Khan, Amjad , Khan, Faiz Ullah et al. Assessment of Adverse Drug Events, Their Risk Factors, and Management Among Patients Treated for Multidrug-Resistant TB: A Prospective Cohort Study From Pakistan [J]. | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY , 2022 , 13 .
MLA Khan, Farman Ullah et al. "Assessment of Adverse Drug Events, Their Risk Factors, and Management Among Patients Treated for Multidrug-Resistant TB: A Prospective Cohort Study From Pakistan" . | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY 13 (2022) .
APA Khan, Farman Ullah , Khan, Amjad , Khan, Faiz Ullah , Hayat, Khezar , Rehman, Asim ur. , Chang, Jie et al. Assessment of Adverse Drug Events, Their Risk Factors, and Management Among Patients Treated for Multidrug-Resistant TB: A Prospective Cohort Study From Pakistan . | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY , 2022 , 13 .
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Assessment of antibiotic storage practices, knowledge, and awareness related to antibiotic uses and antibiotic resistance among household members in post-conflict areas of Pakistan: Bi-central study SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2022 , 9 | FRONTIERS IN MEDICINE
SCOPUS Cited Count: 6
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Background The storage of antimicrobials at home is frequently in-practice in various developing countries, resulting an irrational use, antibiotic resistance, and toxicities. This condition may worsen more in conflict zones where health facilities are limited. This study aimed to determine the storage and use of leftover antibiotics among households (HHs) along with knowledge and awareness about antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (ABR). Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study design was employed. Members of HHs were invited to participate in the survey while using a convenient sampling technique. The data were obtained using a validated questionnaire and analyzed through SPSS. Results A total of 96 HHs were randomly selected from two districts (n = 50, n = 46), with most of the participants being men between the ages of 18 and 28 (n = 45, 46.9%) years. The majority of HHs (n = 32, 33.3%) had six to eight total family members, with one to two chronic diseases (n = 63, 65.6%), individual families (n = 60, 62.5%), and with (n = 35, 36.5%) LRTIs (lower respiratory tract infections). The HHs were aware of the word "antibiotic" (n = 59, 61.5%) and gave correct replies to amoxicillin as an antibiotic (n = 42, 43.8%); on the other hand, HHs also thought of paracetamol as an antibiotic (n = 45, 47.9%). They identified the most common brands of antibiotics easily, and a majority of them (n = 69, 71.9%) had never heard of ABR before and had lower levels of awareness. The most stored antibiotic at home (n=38, 39.6%) was azithromycin (J01FA10). In addition, they had multiple needless (1-2, n = 62, 64.6%; 3-4, n = 29, 30.2%) and antibiotics in their houses. Age had a strong association (p = 0.017, H = 12) affected the mean knowledge scores related to antibiotic use. Association of education levels (p = 0.001, H = 52.8) and occupation (p = 0.04, H = 10) with proper antibiotics use were found to be significant. However, family members with more than one chronic illness (p = 0.09, H = 0.8) showed a significant relationship with their awareness of antibiotics. Conclusion Participants generally stored various antibiotics of different classes in their homes. Lack of knowledge related to the appropriate usage of antibiotics, use of leftover antibiotics, and awareness related to ABR were unknown to the participants.

Keyword :

antibiotic resistance antibiotics storage households Pakistan post-conflict areas

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GB/T 7714 Khan, Faiz Ullah , Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain , Khan, Qasim et al. Assessment of antibiotic storage practices, knowledge, and awareness related to antibiotic uses and antibiotic resistance among household members in post-conflict areas of Pakistan: Bi-central study [J]. | FRONTIERS IN MEDICINE , 2022 , 9 .
MLA Khan, Faiz Ullah et al. "Assessment of antibiotic storage practices, knowledge, and awareness related to antibiotic uses and antibiotic resistance among household members in post-conflict areas of Pakistan: Bi-central study" . | FRONTIERS IN MEDICINE 9 (2022) .
APA Khan, Faiz Ullah , Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain , Khan, Qasim , Khan, Farman Ullah , Hayat, Khezar , Khan, Yusra Habib et al. Assessment of antibiotic storage practices, knowledge, and awareness related to antibiotic uses and antibiotic resistance among household members in post-conflict areas of Pakistan: Bi-central study . | FRONTIERS IN MEDICINE , 2022 , 9 .
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Status and Impacts of Recreational and Medicinal Cannabis Policies in Africa: A Systematic Review and Thematic Analysis of Published and "Gray" Literature SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2022 , 7 (3) , 239-261 | CANNABIS AND CANNABINOID RESEARCH
SCOPUS Cited Count: 12
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Background: Despite cannabis's societal ubiquity, several African states remain traditional prohibitionists. However, cannabis is becoming a more explored frontier from a health, human rights, and monetary perspective. A number of African countries have taken to tailoring their policies to better engage in emerging global dialogs. Nevertheless, the focus is majorly on the crop's financial appeal with less consideration on impacts of policies. This review aimed to specifically focus on the identification of existing or pending policies, indicating national positioning in terms of recreational and medicinal cannabis use and summarizing publications addressing related impacts in Africa.Methods: We systematically searched six academic research databases (including Google Scholar), Google, country specific websites, and websites of relevant organizations. Included publications were in English and published between January 1, 2000, and November 31, 2020 (with exception granted to official legislation not in English and/or published earlier than 2000, but still in effect). Reference lists of included publications were screened for potentially relevant publications. Results were synthesized thematically and descriptively.Results: Cannabis is Africa's most consumed illegal substance, its use entrenched in social, political, historical, economic, and medicinal ties. African users constitute a third of the worldly total and cultivation is a major activity. Policies have led to prison overcrowding, accelerated environmental damage, and sourced regional instability. South Africa, Seychelles, and Ghana have decriminalized personal use with Egypt and Mozambique exploring similar legislation. Eleven countries have existing or pending medicinal cannabis-specific provisions. South Africa and Seychelles stand out as having regulations for patients to access medicinal cannabis. Other countries have made provisions geared toward creating export markets and economic diversification.Conclusion: Cannabis policy is a composite and complex issue. Official stances taken are based on long withstanding narratives and characterized by a range of contributing factors. Policy changes based on modern trends should include larger studies of previous policy impacts and future-oriented analysis of country-level goals incorporated with a greater understanding of public opinion.

Keyword :

Africa cannabis medicinal cannabis policy recreational cannabis

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GB/T 7714 Kitchen, Chenai , Kabba, John Alimamy , Fang, Yu . Status and Impacts of Recreational and Medicinal Cannabis Policies in Africa: A Systematic Review and Thematic Analysis of Published and "Gray" Literature [J]. | CANNABIS AND CANNABINOID RESEARCH , 2022 , 7 (3) : 239-261 .
MLA Kitchen, Chenai et al. "Status and Impacts of Recreational and Medicinal Cannabis Policies in Africa: A Systematic Review and Thematic Analysis of Published and "Gray" Literature" . | CANNABIS AND CANNABINOID RESEARCH 7 . 3 (2022) : 239-261 .
APA Kitchen, Chenai , Kabba, John Alimamy , Fang, Yu . Status and Impacts of Recreational and Medicinal Cannabis Policies in Africa: A Systematic Review and Thematic Analysis of Published and "Gray" Literature . | CANNABIS AND CANNABINOID RESEARCH , 2022 , 7 (3) , 239-261 .
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Understanding of Future Prescribers About Antimicrobial Resistance and Their Preparedness Towards Antimicrobial Stewardship Activities in Pakistan: Findings and Implications SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2022 , 13 | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY
SCOPUS Cited Count: 6
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Background: Insufficient antimicrobial-related training for physicians during their undergraduate education could have a negative impact on their prescribing. Unlike previous studies, this study not only explored the understanding and perception of Pakistani medical students about antibiotics and resistance, but also their preparedness towards antimicrobial stewardship programs.Methods: An online cross-sectional study was undertaken with final-year medical students using a validated questionnaire from January 2021 to May 2021. Descriptive and inference statistics were applied for data analysis.Results: Of 411 students, only 6.3% had undergone antimicrobial resistance (AMR) training. 16.1% of students believed that antibiotics are effective for viral ailments. More than half of the students agreed that AMR is a major healthcare problem in Pakistan (65.9%). Most students viewed poor infection control practices (66.9%), the use of too many broad-spectrum antibiotics (68.4%) for a longer duration (62.8%) with inadequate doses (67.9%) as the causes of AMR. The student's preparation was insufficient in interpreting microbiological and pathological results (26.3%), selecting the correct antibiotics (22.1%), and awareness of the antibiotic spectrum (20.9%). The median preparedness score showed significant differences with sex (p = 0.049), age (p < 0.001), institute type (p = 0.014), and family income (p = 0.006).Conclusion: Pakistani medical students showed adequate understanding of antibiotics, but lacked preparedness for several components of ASPs, including interpretation of microbiological results and spectrum of antibiotics. More steps need to be taken to prepare medical students for AMR and stewardship initiatives adequately.

Keyword :

antibiotics antimicrobial resistance antimicrobial stewardship programs medical students Pakistan preparedness

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GB/T 7714 Hayat, Khezar , Fatima, Noor , Umer, Muhammad Farooq et al. Understanding of Future Prescribers About Antimicrobial Resistance and Their Preparedness Towards Antimicrobial Stewardship Activities in Pakistan: Findings and Implications [J]. | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY , 2022 , 13 .
MLA Hayat, Khezar et al. "Understanding of Future Prescribers About Antimicrobial Resistance and Their Preparedness Towards Antimicrobial Stewardship Activities in Pakistan: Findings and Implications" . | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY 13 (2022) .
APA Hayat, Khezar , Fatima, Noor , Umer, Muhammad Farooq , Khan, Farman Ullah , Khan, Faiz Ullah , Najeeb, Zia ul Rehman et al. Understanding of Future Prescribers About Antimicrobial Resistance and Their Preparedness Towards Antimicrobial Stewardship Activities in Pakistan: Findings and Implications . | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY , 2022 , 13 .
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Experience of Pharmacists with Anti-Cancer Medicine Shortages in Pakistan: Results of a Qualitative Study Scopus SCIE SSCI
期刊论文 | 2022 , 19 (23) | International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
SCOPUS Cited Count: 2
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This study aimed to examine the current situation of anti-cancer drug shortages in Pakistan, namely its determinants, impacts, adopted mitigation strategies, and proposed solutions. Qualitative semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 pharmacists in oncology hospitals in Pakistan from August to October 2021. Data were collected in person and online, recorded, and subjected to inductive thematic analysis after being transcribed verbatim. Most participants experienced anti-cancer drug shortages that increased during the pandemic. Etoposide, paclitaxel, vincristine, dacarbazine, and methotrexate were frequently short. Important causes included the compromised role of regulatory authorities, lack of local production, and inventory mismanagement. The impacts were delayed/suboptimal treatment and out-of-pocket costs for patients, patients’ prioritization, increased workload, negative work environment, and patients’ trust issues for pharmacists. The participants proposed that a cautious regulator’s role is needed to revise policies for all stakeholders and support all stakeholders financially at their level to increase access to these medicines. Based on the outcomes, it is clear that anti-cancer medicine shortages are a current issue in Pakistan. Governmental authorities need to play a role in revising policies for all levels of the drug supply chain and promoting local production of these drugs. Stakeholders should also collaborate and manage inventory. © 2022 by the authors.

Keyword :

anti-cancer; chemotherapeutic shortages; essential medicine shortages; medicine shortages; oncology medicine shortages; Pakistan

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GB/T 7714 Shukar, S. , Zahoor, F. , Omer, S. et al. Experience of Pharmacists with Anti-Cancer Medicine Shortages in Pakistan: Results of a Qualitative Study [J]. | International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2022 , 19 (23) .
MLA Shukar, S. et al. "Experience of Pharmacists with Anti-Cancer Medicine Shortages in Pakistan: Results of a Qualitative Study" . | International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19 . 23 (2022) .
APA Shukar, S. , Zahoor, F. , Omer, S. , Awan, S.E. , Yang, C. , Fang, Y. . Experience of Pharmacists with Anti-Cancer Medicine Shortages in Pakistan: Results of a Qualitative Study . | International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2022 , 19 (23) .
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Access to Insulin Products in Pakistan: A National Scale Cross-Sectional Survey on Prices, Availability, and Affordability SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2022 , 13 | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY
SCOPUS Cited Count: 5
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Background: Diabetes is among the top ten most prevalent diseases in Pakistan, and the availability of medicines to treat the disease is vital for a great percentage of the country's population. Insulin was discovered a century ago; however, its access in several parts of the globe remains an issue. This study aims to evaluate prices, availability, and affordability (access components) of insulin and five comparator medicine access in Pakistan.Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted to evaluate the access to insulin and some comparator medicines in eight cities of Pakistan, using a modified WHO/HAI methodology. The survey included 80 medicine outlets, i.e., 40 private pharmacies and 40 public hospitals. Data for every unique insulin product available in the Pakistani market were obtained, including five comparator medicines. Percentage availability, median unit prices (MUPs), and affordability (the number of days' wages (NDWs) required for a month's course by the lowest-paid unskilled government worker) of all products were calculated, including originator brands (OBs) and biosimilar (BS) products.Results: Of all insulin products surveyed (n = 320), 87.5% were manufactured by foreign multinational companies (MNCs). None of the insulin products had an ideal availability of 80% in any of the surveyed health facilities. In the public sector, none of the insulin products had an availability of more than 50%. In the public sector, the overall availability of human insulin was 70% (including OB and BS). While in the private sector, the overall availability of human insulin was 90% and that of analog insulin was 62.5%. The analog insulin products were 72.8% costlier than the human insulin products. The median prices of BS insulin were 25.4% lower than the OB products, indicating that almost one-fourth of the cost could be saved by switching to BS human insulin from OB human insulin. All oral anti-diabetic medicines were found to be affordable, whereas none of the insulin was affordable. The NDWs for human and analog insulin were 1.38 and 5.06.Conclusion: In Pakistan, the insulin availability falls short of the WHO's benchmark of 80%. Insulin continues to be unaffordable in both private and government sectors. To increase insulin access, the government should optimize insulin procurement at all levels, promote local production, enforce biosimilar prescribing, and provide financial subsidies for these products.

Keyword :

affordability availability insulin Pakistan price

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GB/T 7714 Saeed, Amna , Lambojon, Krizzia , Saeed, Hamid et al. Access to Insulin Products in Pakistan: A National Scale Cross-Sectional Survey on Prices, Availability, and Affordability [J]. | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY , 2022 , 13 .
MLA Saeed, Amna et al. "Access to Insulin Products in Pakistan: A National Scale Cross-Sectional Survey on Prices, Availability, and Affordability" . | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY 13 (2022) .
APA Saeed, Amna , Lambojon, Krizzia , Saeed, Hamid , Saleem, Zikria , Anwer, Naveed , Aziz, Muhammad Majid et al. Access to Insulin Products in Pakistan: A National Scale Cross-Sectional Survey on Prices, Availability, and Affordability . | FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY , 2022 , 13 .
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Views of Pharmacists and Government Representatives Toward the Pilot Chief Pharmacist System in Chinese Hospitals: A Multicenter Exploratory Qualitative Study SCIE SSCI Scopus
期刊论文 | 2022 , 10 | FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH
SCOPUS Cited Count: 1
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BackgroundIn China, the pharmacy departments of most hospitals have changed their main focus from drug procurement and distribution to providing pharmaceutical care services. Various regions of China have successively implemented the pilot Chief Pharmacist System (CPS) to help improve pharmaceutical care services and rational drug use in hospitals. This study was designed to explore the perspectives of pharmacists and government officials on CPS, including the advantages and barriers to the successful implementation of CPS. MethodsA qualitative study, based on semi-structured interviews, was conducted from October 1, 2018 to March 1, 2019. The interview data were gathered from 18 pharmacy staff and government representatives working in five distinct regions of China using purposive sampling. A thematic analysis approach and NVivo version 12 Plus was utilized to code and analysis of all interviews. ResultsFive broad themes were identified: the role of the chief pharmacist; their attitudes toward the CPS; the advantages and results of the CPS; the barriers toward CPS; and their suggestions toward CPS. Most of the participants believed that the chief pharmacist played a vital role in a hospital. Under CPS, the hospital pharmacy department pays more attention to prescription review, medication monitoring, and pharmaceutical consultation. However, an insufficient number of pharmacy personnel, unclear authority, and inadequate salaries were the main barriers to the implementation of the CPS. ConclusionThe attitudes of most of the participants were found to be positive toward CPS in China. The CPS can enhance the prestige of the hospital pharmacy department, improve the quality of hospital pharmaceutical care services, and promote rational drug use. Nevertheless, certain barriers highlighted in this study should be addressed promptly.

Keyword :

chief pharmacist system China health system pharmaceutical service qualitative study

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GB/T 7714 Yang, Ruomeng , Li, Qian , Hayat, Khezar et al. Views of Pharmacists and Government Representatives Toward the Pilot Chief Pharmacist System in Chinese Hospitals: A Multicenter Exploratory Qualitative Study [J]. | FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH , 2022 , 10 .
MLA Yang, Ruomeng et al. "Views of Pharmacists and Government Representatives Toward the Pilot Chief Pharmacist System in Chinese Hospitals: A Multicenter Exploratory Qualitative Study" . | FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH 10 (2022) .
APA Yang, Ruomeng , Li, Qian , Hayat, Khezar , Zhai, Panpan , Liu, Wenchen , Chen, Chen et al. Views of Pharmacists and Government Representatives Toward the Pilot Chief Pharmacist System in Chinese Hospitals: A Multicenter Exploratory Qualitative Study . | FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH , 2022 , 10 .
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Parental Preferences of Influenza Vaccination for Children in China: A National Survey with a Discrete Choice Experiment SCIE SSCI Scopus
期刊论文 | 2022 , 19 (4) | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
SCOPUS Cited Count: 5
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The influenza vaccination coverage among children is low in China. We aimed to conduct a nationwide survey to quantify parental preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for influenza vaccination for their children. Parents with children aged six months to 18 years from six provinces in China were investigated by a discrete choice experiment regarding six influenza vaccination attributes. Mixed logit models were used to estimate the relative importance of vaccine attributes and parents' WTP. Interaction analysis and subgroup analysis were conducted to explore preference heterogeneity. A total of 1206 parents were included in the analysis. Parents reported vaccine effectiveness as the most important vaccine attribute. The mode of vaccine administration had no significant impact on parents' preferences. Parents aged over 30 years with higher education or income levels were more likely to prefer no influenza vaccination for their children. The largest marginal WTP (CNY 802.57) for vaccination and the largest increase in vaccine uptake (41.85%) occurred with improved vaccine effectiveness from 30% to 80%. Parents from central regions or mid-latitude areas had a relatively lower WTP than those from other regions. No significant difference in the relative importance of vaccine attributes were observed among parents from various regions of China.

Keyword :

children discrete choice experiment influenza vaccine preference vaccine uptake willingness to pay

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GB/T 7714 Jiang, Minghuan , Gong, Yilin , Fang, Yu et al. Parental Preferences of Influenza Vaccination for Children in China: A National Survey with a Discrete Choice Experiment [J]. | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH , 2022 , 19 (4) .
MLA Jiang, Minghuan et al. "Parental Preferences of Influenza Vaccination for Children in China: A National Survey with a Discrete Choice Experiment" . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH 19 . 4 (2022) .
APA Jiang, Minghuan , Gong, Yilin , Fang, Yu , Yao, Xuelin , Feng, Liuxin , Zhu, Shan et al. Parental Preferences of Influenza Vaccination for Children in China: A National Survey with a Discrete Choice Experiment . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH , 2022 , 19 (4) .
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