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附属医院教学满意度问卷的制作和信效度分析
期刊论文 | 2021 , 29 (5) , 738-742 | 医学教育研究与实践
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目的 研制医学生对附属医院的教学满意度调查问卷,通过实际调查对其信度和效度进行评价和问卷的修正,为医学教育满意度测量提供可靠的工具.方法 检索2014-2020年间相关文献,选择可用于客观反映/评价教学质量或满意度的指标,组织问卷小组进行讨论,形成初稿.以在附属医院在读理论课的学生为调查对象,使用自制问卷对随机抽取的58名学生进行预调查.问卷的同质性采用内部一致性信度和重测信度、因素负荷量、相关分析法和主成分因子分析法进行分析.结果 经文献检索、讨论,初步确定包括针对课程体系、教学过程、教学管理服务、硬件设施、总体印象五个维度在内的50个条目的 量表.量表的内部一致性信度Cronbach''s α系数为0.957,KMO=0.864,P<0.05,根据信度分析、相关分析和主成分分析法,逐步删减问题后形成5个因子38个条目的 问卷,共解释变异度72.85%.4周后进行重测,α系数为0.944.结论 医学生对附属医院教学满意度调查问卷具有良好的信度和效度,能够较好地反映医学生对附属医院教学的满意度,适用于附属医院教学评价.

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GB/T 7714 刘瑛 , 沈迟 , 潘龙飞 et al. 附属医院教学满意度问卷的制作和信效度分析 [J]. | 医学教育研究与实践 , 2021 , 29 (5) : 738-742 .
MLA 刘瑛 et al. "附属医院教学满意度问卷的制作和信效度分析" . | 医学教育研究与实践 29 . 5 (2021) : 738-742 .
APA 刘瑛 , 沈迟 , 潘龙飞 , 程悦 , 周忠良 . 附属医院教学满意度问卷的制作和信效度分析 . | 医学教育研究与实践 , 2021 , 29 (5) , 738-742 .
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Understanding parental self-medication with antibiotics among parents of different nationalities: a cross-sectional study. PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 , 6 (1) , 42 | Global health research and policy
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There is an increasing trend on the practices of parental self-medication with antibiotics (PSMA) around world, accelerating the antibiotic abuse. This study aims to examine the nationality differences in the practices of PSMA and knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) toward antibiotic use, and understand the practices of PSMA among parents of various nationalities in China.A cross-sectional study based on a structured questionnaire survey was conducted in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China, from September 2018 to October 2018. A total of 299 respondents participated in. The practices of PSMA (a dichotomous variable) and KAP toward antibiotic use (a continuous variable) served as dependent variables. Participant's nationality was regarded as the independent variable. Binary logistic regression and ordinary least square regression were employed to examine the association between parent's nationality and the practices of PSMA, and KAP toward antibiotic use, respectively.121 (40.88%) Chinese, 100 (33.76%) other Asians and 75 (25.34%) Occidentals were included in final analysis, with a sample size of 296. Chinese were more likely to practice PSMA (OR = 7.070; 95% CI 1.315, 38.01), with worse knowledge (Coef. = - 0.549; 95% CI - 1.021, - 0.078), attitudes (Coef. = - 3.069; 95% CI - 4.182, - 1.956) and practices (Coef. = - 1.976; 95% CI - 3.162, - 0.790) toward antibiotic use, compared to their Occidental counterparts. The main reasons for the practices of PSMA were enough previous medication experience (80.49%) and same ailments with no need to see a doctor (39.02%), with common symptoms such as fever (60.98%) and cough (58.54%). Purchasing antibiotics at pharmacies (92.08%) and using leftover antibiotics (26.83%) were usual approaches.The study highlights the gaps in the practices of PSMA and KAP toward antibiotic use among parents of different nationalities. The access to obtain antibiotics from pharmacies reflects the pharmacists' unaware of laws on prescription of antibiotics, fierce competition in the pharmacy market, and the government's lax supervision in China. It suggests the need to improve pharmacists' training, enforce current legislations on pharmacy market regarding the sale of antibiotics, and provide practical and effective educational interventions for residents about antibiotic use.

Keyword :

Attitudes Knowledge Nationality Parental self-medication with antibiotics Practices

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GB/T 7714 Zhou Zhongliang , Zhao Dantong , Zhang Huarui et al. Understanding parental self-medication with antibiotics among parents of different nationalities: a cross-sectional study. [J]. | Global health research and policy , 2021 , 6 (1) : 42 .
MLA Zhou Zhongliang et al. "Understanding parental self-medication with antibiotics among parents of different nationalities: a cross-sectional study." . | Global health research and policy 6 . 1 (2021) : 42 .
APA Zhou Zhongliang , Zhao Dantong , Zhang Huarui , Shen Chi , Cao Dan , Liu Guanping et al. Understanding parental self-medication with antibiotics among parents of different nationalities: a cross-sectional study. . | Global health research and policy , 2021 , 6 (1) , 42 .
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Income-related inequality in distribution of health human resource among districts of Pakistan SCIE PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 , 21 (1) | BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH
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BackgroundSolving inequality of health human resource (HHR) is one of the motives of Pakistan health policies, however, there is still exists a massive quantity of HHR inequality in almost every district of Pakistan. The main goal of this research is to scrutinize the disparity in allocation of human health resources among 114 regions of Pakistan from the year 2012 to 2016 and to expose the foundations and aspects of HHR inequality.MethodsThe data regarding this research has been obtained from Pakistan Statistical Bureau from the year 2012 to 2016. The statistics had also been collected from United Nation Development Program (UNDP) Pakistan 2017, Pakistan economic surveys, Ministry of finance Islamabad, Pakistan, Pakistan Social and Living standards Measurement (PSLM) Surveys from 2012 to 2016. The information incorporates district wise; the number of specialists and medical caretakers those are doctors and nurses, number of hospitals, number of beds, number of dispensaries, number of beds in dispensaries, urbanization, total estimated GNI per capita, infant mortality rate, geographical area, and population size. The concentration index is used to compute the extent of disparity in allocation of human health resources and decomposition analysis is also carried out to enumerate the contribution of each variable towards total inequality. Furthermore, the horizontal concentration was used to measure the participation of the need variable.Results7. The consequent Concentration Indexes (CI) of the doctors and nurses for the year 2016 are 0.60 (95% CI= 0.42, 0.78) and 0.67 (95% CI= 0.42, 0.92) respectively. Decomposition of the concentration indexes exposed that the monetary status accounts are the leading percentage contributor in doctors disparity (77.5, 44.9, 30.6, -11.6% and 13%) and population size (-20.7,-10.5%, 4.6, 49.8, 19.7%). Furthermore, the monetary status formulates the superior contribution HHR disparity from nurses inequality (104.5, 75.1, 59.2, -54.3%, -40.1%), and population size (-53.7, -53.6%, -36.3, 83.8, 65.3%). Moreover, after the identification of the need variable the Horizontal Concentration Index (HCI) values of doctors from the year 2012 to 2016 are 0.62, 0.64, 0.63, 0.62 and 0.61 and HCI of the nurses are 0.69, 0.70, 0.69, 0.68 and 0.67.ConclusionThe pro-rich disparity in allocation of HHR has been scrutinized from the year 2012 to 2016 among 114 districts of Pakistan. The hard concern of HHR disparity should be concentrated by the complete procedures from a multidisciplinary approach.

Keyword :

Concentration index Decomposition analysis District Horizontal concentration index Human health resource Inequality

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GB/T 7714 Nawaz, Rashed , Zhou, Zhongliang , Khalid, Neelum et al. Income-related inequality in distribution of health human resource among districts of Pakistan [J]. | BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH , 2021 , 21 (1) .
MLA Nawaz, Rashed et al. "Income-related inequality in distribution of health human resource among districts of Pakistan" . | BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH 21 . 1 (2021) .
APA Nawaz, Rashed , Zhou, Zhongliang , Khalid, Neelum , Cao, Dan , Liu, Guanping , Ren, Yangling et al. Income-related inequality in distribution of health human resource among districts of Pakistan . | BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH , 2021 , 21 (1) .
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Comparing the pelvis of Tibetan and Chinese Han women in rural areas of China: two population-based studies using coarsened exact matching SCIE PubMed Scopus
期刊论文 | 2021 , 42 (3) , 403-409 | JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY
SCOPUS Cited Count: 2
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This study aims to investigate the difference of pelvic size and shape between Tibetan and Chinese Han women. Data on pelvic dimension measures including interspinous diameter (IS), intercrestal diameter (IC), external conjugate (EC) and transverse outlet (TO) were acquired from two population-based studies amongst Tibetan women in Lhasa, and Chinese Han women in Shaanxi province in China. After coarsened exact matching, there was no statistical difference between any characteristics amongst Tibetan and Chinese Han women (p>.05). The generalised estimating equation models showed Tibetan women had significantly lower IS and IC means than Chinese Han women (IS: 24.39 cm vs. 24.77 cm, p<.001; IC: 26.35 cm vs. 26.93 cm, p<.001) but statistically higher in TO mean (9.12 cm vs. 9.03 cm, p<.001). This study showed Tibetan women have smaller pelvis compared to Chinese Han women. This should offer a useful literature on the comparison of pelvis between Tibetan and Chinese Han women although the difference is small.Impact Statement What is already known on this subject? Previous studies in China indicated different populations have different dimensions of pelvis, with the pelvis of Uighur women being bigger than Chinese Han women, and that of Zhuang and Tu women being smaller than Chinese Han women. Little research reports the specific size of Tibetan women's pelvis. Living at high altitude, the Tibetan population have differentiated demographics and show local adaptions, such as unelevated haemoglobin, and significant catch-up growth for infants compared with Chinese Han infants. Therefore, there is a strong rationale for better understanding pelvic characteristics amongst this population. What the results of this study add? This study showed Tibetan women have smaller pelvises compared to Chinese Han women. Tibetan women have a smaller interspinous diameter and intercrestal diameter than Chinese Han women, which leads to relatively narrow hip. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? This study provides useful comparative information on pelvic features between Tibetan and Chinese Han women although the findings of differences were small. In addition, during the formulation of women's health policy, the results of this study can provide data to support the selection of appropriate indicators of obstetrics and gynaecology for different populations of pregnant women during antenatal care and delivery.

Keyword :

Chinese Han women coarsened exact matching Pelvis population-based study Tibetan women

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GB/T 7714 Fan, Xiaojing , Zhou, Zhongliang , Stewart, Martyn et al. Comparing the pelvis of Tibetan and Chinese Han women in rural areas of China: two population-based studies using coarsened exact matching [J]. | JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY , 2021 , 42 (3) : 403-409 .
MLA Fan, Xiaojing et al. "Comparing the pelvis of Tibetan and Chinese Han women in rural areas of China: two population-based studies using coarsened exact matching" . | JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY 42 . 3 (2021) : 403-409 .
APA Fan, Xiaojing , Zhou, Zhongliang , Stewart, Martyn , Wang, Duolao , Lan, Xin , Dang, Shaonong et al. Comparing the pelvis of Tibetan and Chinese Han women in rural areas of China: two population-based studies using coarsened exact matching . | JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY , 2021 , 42 (3) , 403-409 .
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Comparison of Depressive Symptoms and Its Influencing Factors among the Elderly in Urban and Rural Areas: Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) SCIE SSCI PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 , 18 (8) | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
WoS CC Cited Count: 2
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Depression amongst the elderly population is a worldwide public health problem, especially in China. Affected by the urban-rural dual structure, depressive symptoms of the elderly in urban and rural areas are significantly different. In order to compare depressive symptoms and its influencing factors among the elderly in urban and rural areas, we used the data from the fourth wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). A total of 7690 participants at age 60 or older were included in this study. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the prevalence estimate of depression between urban and rural elderly (chi(2) = 10.9.76, p < 0.001). The prevalence of depression among rural elderly was significantly higher than that of urban elderly (OR-unadjusted = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.67 to 2.12). After adjusting for gender, age, marital status, education level, minorities, religious belief, self-reported health, duration of sleep, life satisfaction, chronic disease, social activities and having income or not, the prevalence of depression in rural elderly is 1.52 times (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.32 to 1.76) than that of urban elderly. Gender, education level, self-reported health, duration of sleep, chronic diseases were associated with depression in both urban and rural areas. In addition, social activities were connected with depression in urban areas, while minorities, marital status and having income or not were influencing factors of depression among the rural elderly. The interaction analysis showed that the interaction between marital status, social activities and urban and rural sources was statistically significant (divorced: coefficient was 1.567, p < 0.05; social activities: coefficient was 0.340, p < 0.05), while gender, education level, minorities, self-reported health, duration of sleep, life satisfaction, chronic disease, social activities having income or not and urban and rural sources have no interaction (p > 0.05). Thus, it is necessary to propose targeted and precise intervention strategies to prevent depression after accurately identifying the factors' effects.

Keyword :

CHARLS (wave 4) depressive symptoms difference of urban and rural area elderly

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GB/T 7714 Liu, Haixia , Fan, Xiaojing , Luo, Huanyuan et al. Comparison of Depressive Symptoms and Its Influencing Factors among the Elderly in Urban and Rural Areas: Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) [J]. | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH , 2021 , 18 (8) .
MLA Liu, Haixia et al. "Comparison of Depressive Symptoms and Its Influencing Factors among the Elderly in Urban and Rural Areas: Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)" . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH 18 . 8 (2021) .
APA Liu, Haixia , Fan, Xiaojing , Luo, Huanyuan , Zhou, Zhongliang , Shen, Chi , Hu, Naibao et al. Comparison of Depressive Symptoms and Its Influencing Factors among the Elderly in Urban and Rural Areas: Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH , 2021 , 18 (8) .
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Whether high government subsidies reduce the healthcare provision of township healthcare centers in rural China SCIE PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 , 21 (1) | BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH
WoS CC Cited Count: 2
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Background China's government launched a large-scale healthcare reform from 2009. One of the main targets of this round reform was to improve the primary health care system. Major reforms for primary healthcare institutions include increasing government investment. However, there are insufficient empirical studies based on large sample to catch long-term effect of increased government subsidy and lack of sufficient incentives on township healthcare centers (THCs), therefore, this study aims to provide additional empirical evidence on the concern by conducting an empirical analysis of THCs in Shaanxi province in China. Methods We collected nine years (2009 to 2017) data of THCs from the Health Finance Annual Report System (HFARS) that was acquired from the Health Commission of Shaanxi Province. We applied two-way fixed effect model and continue difference-in-difference (DID) model to estimate the effect of percentage of government subsidy on medical provision. Results A clear jump of the average percentage of government subsidy to total revenue of THCs can be found in Shaanxi province in 2011, and the average percentage has been more than 60% after 2011. Continue DID models indicate every 1% percentage of government subsidy to total revenue increase after 2011 resulted in a decrease of 1.1 to 3.5% in THCs healthcare provision (1.9% in medical revenue, 1.2% in outpatient visit, 3.5% in total occupy beds of inpatient, 1.1% in surgery revenue, 2.1% in sickbed utilization rate). The results show that the THCs with high government subsidy reduce the number of medical services after 2011. Conclusions We think that it is no doubt that the government should take more responsibility for the financing of primary healthcare institutions, the problem is when government plays a central role in the financing and delivery of primary health care services, more effective incentives should be developed.

Keyword :

China Healthcare reform Incentives Township healthcare centers

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GB/T 7714 Shen, Chi , Zhou, Zhongliang , Lai, Sha et al. Whether high government subsidies reduce the healthcare provision of township healthcare centers in rural China [J]. | BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH , 2021 , 21 (1) .
MLA Shen, Chi et al. "Whether high government subsidies reduce the healthcare provision of township healthcare centers in rural China" . | BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH 21 . 1 (2021) .
APA Shen, Chi , Zhou, Zhongliang , Lai, Sha , Dong, Wanyue , Zhao, Yaxin , Cao, Dan et al. Whether high government subsidies reduce the healthcare provision of township healthcare centers in rural China . | BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH , 2021 , 21 (1) .
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The effects of family physician-contracted service on health-related quality of life and equity in health in China SSCI PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 , 20 (1) | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR EQUITY IN HEALTH
WoS CC Cited Count: 2
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BackgroundFamily physician-contracted service (FPCs) has been recently implemented in Chinese primary care settings. This study was aimed at measuring the effects of FPCs on residents' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and equity in health among the Chinese population.MethodsThe study data was drawn from the 2018 household health survey (Shaanxi Province, China) using multistage, stratified cluster random sampling. We measured HRQoL using EQ-5D-3L based on the Chinese-specific time trade-off values set. Coarsened exact matching (CEM) technique was used to control for confounding factors between residents with and without a contracted family physician. The concentration index (C) was calculated to measure equity in health.ResultsIndividuals with a contracted family physician had significantly higher HRQoL than those without, after data matching (0.9355 vs. 0.8995; P< 0.001). Additionally, the inequity in HRQoL among respondents with a contracted family physician was significantly lower than those without a contracted family physician (Cs of EQ-5D utility score: 0.0084 vs. 0.0263; p< 0.001).ConclusionsThis study highlights the positive effects of FPCs on HRQoL and socioeconomic-related equity in HRQoL. Future efforts should prioritize the economically and educationally disadvantaged groups, the expansion of service coverage, and the competency of family physician teams to further enhance health outcome and equity in health.

Keyword :

China Equity in health Family physician Health-related quality of life

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GB/T 7714 Lai, Sha , Lu, Li , Zhou, Zhongliang et al. The effects of family physician-contracted service on health-related quality of life and equity in health in China [J]. | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR EQUITY IN HEALTH , 2021 , 20 (1) .
MLA Lai, Sha et al. "The effects of family physician-contracted service on health-related quality of life and equity in health in China" . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR EQUITY IN HEALTH 20 . 1 (2021) .
APA Lai, Sha , Lu, Li , Zhou, Zhongliang , Shen, Chi , Yang, Xiaowei , Zhao, Yaxin et al. The effects of family physician-contracted service on health-related quality of life and equity in health in China . | INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR EQUITY IN HEALTH , 2021 , 20 (1) .
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Relationships Between Anxiety Symptoms, Hopelessness and Suicidal Ideation Among Parental Caregivers of Mandarin-Speaking Children With Speech Impairment: The Mediating Effect of Depressive Symptoms SCIE SSCI PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 , 12 | FRONTIERS IN PSYCHIATRY
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Background: Determining the mental health status of parents who chronically care for a child with speech impairment is important for developing appropriate interventions to improve both parents' and children's health and achieve a win-win situation. Unfortunately, no study in China has explored this issue. This study investigated the differences in four aspects of mental health between maternal and paternal caregivers for the Mandarin-speaking children with speech impairment and determine whether depressive symptoms mediate the relationships between anxiety symptoms and suicidal ideation, hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in February 2020 by sending a link to the predesigned electronic questionnaire in WeChat. Standardized assessment tools were employed. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine the associations between various factors and suicidal ideation, and two separate structural equation models were performed to evaluate the mediating effects of depressive symptoms in the relationship between anxiety symptoms and suicidal ideation as well as between hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Results: This study included 446 parental caregivers of Mandarin-speaking children with speech impairment. Paternal caregivers had greater score than maternal caregivers on loss of motivation (one of the subdomains of hopelessness). Somatic complications of the child (OR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.09-6.67) and depressive symptoms (OR = 3.38, 95% CI: 1.83-6.30) were positively associated with caregivers' suicidal ideation. Having speech therapy of child (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-0.98) was negatively correlated with caregivers' suicidal ideation. There was direct effect of depressive symptoms on suicidal ideation. Depressive symptoms play mediating roles on the relationships between anxiety symptoms (beta = 0.171, p < 0.001) as well as between hopelessness and suicidal ideation (beta = 0.187, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Paternal and maternal caregivers of Mandarin-speaking children with speech impairment suffered from mental health problems. Preventive strategies and interventions to ameliorate parental psychological well-being, and health care policies to increase the accessibility to speech therapy care of children with speech impairment are imperative.

Keyword :

anxiety symptoms children China depressive symptoms hopelessness parental caregiver speech impairment suicidal ideation

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GB/T 7714 Ma, Si-Wei , Lai, Sha , Yang, Yan-Yan et al. Relationships Between Anxiety Symptoms, Hopelessness and Suicidal Ideation Among Parental Caregivers of Mandarin-Speaking Children With Speech Impairment: The Mediating Effect of Depressive Symptoms [J]. | FRONTIERS IN PSYCHIATRY , 2021 , 12 .
MLA Ma, Si-Wei et al. "Relationships Between Anxiety Symptoms, Hopelessness and Suicidal Ideation Among Parental Caregivers of Mandarin-Speaking Children With Speech Impairment: The Mediating Effect of Depressive Symptoms" . | FRONTIERS IN PSYCHIATRY 12 (2021) .
APA Ma, Si-Wei , Lai, Sha , Yang, Yan-Yan , Zhou, Zhongliang , Yang, Bin-Ting , Zheng, Gu-Zheng-Yue et al. Relationships Between Anxiety Symptoms, Hopelessness and Suicidal Ideation Among Parental Caregivers of Mandarin-Speaking Children With Speech Impairment: The Mediating Effect of Depressive Symptoms . | FRONTIERS IN PSYCHIATRY , 2021 , 12 .
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Comparison of inequity in health-related quality of life among unemployed and employed individuals in China SCIE SSCI PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 , 21 (1) | BMC PUBLIC HEALTH
WoS CC Cited Count: 4
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BackgroundIn China, achieving health equity has been regarded as a key issue for health reform and development in the current context. It is well known that unemployment has a negative effect on health. However, few studies have addressed the association between unemployment and inequity in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study aims to compare the inequality and inequity in HRQOL between the unemployed and employed in China.MethodsThe material regarding this study was derived from the Chinese National Health Services Survey of Shaanxi Province for 2013. We controlled for confounding factors by utilizing the coarsened exact matching method. Finally, 7524 employed individuals and 283 unemployed individuals who were 15 to 64years old in urban areas were included in this study. We used HRQOL as the outcome variable, which was evaluated by using the Chinese version of EQ-5D-3L. The health concentration index, decomposition analysis based on the Tobit model, and the horizontal inequity index were employed to compute the socioeconomic-related equity between the unemployed and employed and the contribution of various factors.ResultsAfter matching, unemployed people tended to have poorer EQ-5D utility scores than employed people. There were statistically pro-rich inequalities in HRQOL among both employed and unemployed people, and the pro-rich health inequity of unemployed people was substantially higher than that of employed people. Economic status, age, education, smoking and health insurance were the factors influencing inequality in HRQOL between employed and unemployed individuals. Education status and basic health insurance have reduced the pro-rich inequity in HRQOL for unemployed people.ConclusionIt is suggested that unemployment intensifies inequality and inequity in HRQOL. According to policymakers, basic health insurance is still a critical health policy for improving health equity for the unemployed. Intervention initiatives aiming to tackle long-term unemployment through active labour market programmes, narrow economic gaps, improve educational equity and promote the health status of the unemployed should be considered by the government to achieve health equity.

Keyword :

China Coarsened exact matching EQ-5D Health equity Health-related quality of life Unemployment

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GB/T 7714 Zhao, Yaxin , Zhou, Zhongliang , Fan, Xiaojing et al. Comparison of inequity in health-related quality of life among unemployed and employed individuals in China [J]. | BMC PUBLIC HEALTH , 2021 , 21 (1) .
MLA Zhao, Yaxin et al. "Comparison of inequity in health-related quality of life among unemployed and employed individuals in China" . | BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 21 . 1 (2021) .
APA Zhao, Yaxin , Zhou, Zhongliang , Fan, Xiaojing , Nawaz, Rashed , Zhao, Dantong , Xu, Tiange et al. Comparison of inequity in health-related quality of life among unemployed and employed individuals in China . | BMC PUBLIC HEALTH , 2021 , 21 (1) .
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Gender differences in depressive symptoms of rural Chinese grandparents caring for grandchildren SCIE SSCI PubMed
期刊论文 | 2021 , 21 (1) | BMC PUBLIC HEALTH
WoS CC Cited Count: 1
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Background Caring for grandchildren is regarded as one of the principle roles of middle- and old-aged adults, especially among rural Chinese grandparents. This study aims to examine the gender differences in depressive symptoms of rural Chinese grandparents caring for grandchildren, based on the gender differences in grandparental role engagement and the theories of role strain and role enhancement. Methods A total of 4833 rural citizens with one or more grandchildren were selected from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) conducted in 2015. Grandchild care was measured by continuous variable (duration) and categorical variable (no care, low intensity, moderate intensity, high intensity). Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We used coarsened exact matching (CEM) to balance the covariates of caregivers and non-caregivers. Following CEM, 1975 non-caregivers and 2212 caregivers were identified (N = 4187). Multilevel linear regression was employed to examine the gender differences in depressive symptoms. We also tested for the moderating role of gender on the association between grandchild care and depressive symptoms. Results Grandmothers were more likely to provide grandchild care (54.42% vs 51.43%) at high intensity (61.46% vs 51.01%), with longer duration (39.24 h vs 33.15 h) than that given by grandfathers. Grandmothers suffered more from depressive symptoms than grandfathers, and such gap increased when grandparents were involved in high-intensity care. Grandmothers providing grandchild care, particularly at moderate intensity, were associated with fewer depressive symptoms (Coef. = - 0.087, 95%CI: - 0.163, - 0.010; Coef. = - 0.291, 95%CI: - 0.435, - 0.147), compared with non-caregivers. Grandmothers giving moderate intensity of grandchild care were also associated with fewer depressive symptoms (Coef. = - 0.171, 95% CI: - 0.313, - 0.029), compared with those with low-intensity care. However, such associations were not significant among grandfathers. Conclusions Our findings highlight the gender differences in depressive symptoms of rural Chinese grandparents caring for grandchildren. Grandparents should be encouraged to engage in grandchild care, but at moderate intensity. The health status of middle- and old-aged adults, particularly females, should be monitored closely. Humanistic care, preventive care and curative treatment strategies focusing on such populations should be developed and refined.

Keyword :

Depressive symptoms Gender differences Grandchild care Intensity Rural China

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GB/T 7714 Zhao, Dantong , Zhou, Zhongliang , Shen, Chi et al. Gender differences in depressive symptoms of rural Chinese grandparents caring for grandchildren [J]. | BMC PUBLIC HEALTH , 2021 , 21 (1) .
MLA Zhao, Dantong et al. "Gender differences in depressive symptoms of rural Chinese grandparents caring for grandchildren" . | BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 21 . 1 (2021) .
APA Zhao, Dantong , Zhou, Zhongliang , Shen, Chi , Ibrahim, Sahardid , Zhao, Yaxin , Cao, Dan et al. Gender differences in depressive symptoms of rural Chinese grandparents caring for grandchildren . | BMC PUBLIC HEALTH , 2021 , 21 (1) .
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